Chapter 2: The Road to True Freedom: African American Alternatives in the New South
Chapter 2: The Road to True Freedom: African American Alternatives in the New South HIST 1379
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hedaya Kelani on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1379 at University of Houston taught by James Schafer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see The United States Since 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
(Chapter 2) The Road to True Freedom: African American Alternatives in the New South The Problem: Even after 30 years of freedom, African Americans were still not “free” in a sense. Economic SemiServitude Very few acquired land Continued to work for landowners 14 & 15 amendment rights = constantly violated Assaults on black women Lynching African American men signed up to serve in the army, yet many whites did not want them to “prove their masculinity” A lot has risen, but a lot has descended as well. These following writers represent the advocacy of full equality for African Americans in different perspectives. 1. Ida B. Wells (18621931): born slave/parents saved up enough money to send her to freedmen’s school/ her parents died when she was 14/ taught in a rural school for blacks/ wrote for the newspaper Free Speech 2. Booker T. Washington (18561915): born slave/ self taught/ entered Hampton Institute/ received an honorary degree at Harvard 3. Henry McNeal Turner (18341915): born free black/ selftaught/ licensed to preach/ became a minister/ became an official of Freedman’s Bureau in Georgia 4. W.E.B. Dubois (18681963): educated with white children/ enrolled at Fisk University/ entered Harvard/ published a book called The Philadelphia Negro/ founded NAACP 5. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper (18251911): orphaned/ child of free parents/ raised by aunt/ worked as seamstress and needlework teacher/ wrote poetry books/ and founded NACW with Ida Wells and others Suggested Strengths Weaknesses Did he/she Alternatives believe integration was possible? Ida B. Wells Punish lynchers Detailed Too radical Somewhat Protect yourself Assumes (African solidarity Americans) with rifles/ guns Bystanders should speak up Boycotts Booker T. Slow change Realistic Too slow of an Yes Washington through work/ alternative education Work; manual labor Henry McNeal African Attempted to unrealistic No Turner Americans provide a should go back solution to Africa W.E.B DuBois Education Good theory (Not many Yes Academia Positive view weaknesses) Political of blacks equality Francis Harper Ensuring Broad appeal Long Yes children are Spoke to all investment wholesome races Slow Mothers are the Unrealistic? center of a prospering society
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