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Chapter 2: The Road to True Freedom: African American Alternatives in the New South

by: Hedaya Kelani

Chapter 2: The Road to True Freedom: African American Alternatives in the New South HIST 1379

Marketplace > University of Houston > History > HIST 1379 > Chapter 2 The Road to True Freedom African American Alternatives in the New South
Hedaya Kelani

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About this Document

Condensed notes for Chapter 2 of Discovering the American Past
The United States Since 1877
James Schafer
Class Notes
history, American History, New South
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hedaya Kelani on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1379 at University of Houston taught by James Schafer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see The United States Since 1877 in History at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
(Chapter 2) The Road to True Freedom: African American Alternatives in the New South The Problem:  Even after 30 years of freedom, African Americans were still not “free” in a sense.   Economic Semi­Servitude  Very few acquired land   Continued to work for landowners   14  & 15  amendment rights = constantly violated  Assaults on black women  Lynching  African American men signed up to serve in the army, yet many whites did not want them to  “prove their masculinity” A lot has risen, but a lot has descended as well. These following writers represent the advocacy of full  equality for African Americans in different perspectives. 1. Ida B. Wells (1862­1931): born slave/parents saved up enough money to send her to freedmen’s  school/ her parents died when she was 14/ taught in a rural school for blacks/ wrote for the  newspaper Free Speech 2. Booker T. Washington (1856­1915): born slave/ self taught/ entered Hampton Institute/ received  an honorary degree at Harvard 3. Henry McNeal Turner (1834­1915): born free black/ self­taught/ licensed to preach/ became a  minister/ became an official of Freedman’s Bureau in Georgia  4. W.E.B. Dubois (1868­1963): educated with white children/ enrolled at Fisk University/ entered  Harvard/ published a book called The Philadelphia Negro/ founded NAACP 5. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper (1825­1911): orphaned/ child of free parents/ raised by aunt/  worked as seamstress and needlework teacher/ wrote poetry books/ and founded NACW with Ida  Wells and others Suggested  Strengths Weaknesses Did he/she  Alternatives believe  integration was  possible? Ida B. Wells  Punish lynchers  Detailed  Too radical  Somewhat  Protect yourself   Assumes  (African  solidarity Americans)  with rifles/ guns  Bystanders  should speak up  Boycotts Booker T.   Slow change   Realistic  Too slow of an   Yes Washington through work/  alternative education  Work; manual  labor Henry McNeal   African   Attempted to   unrealistic  No Turner  Americans  provide a  should go back  solution to Africa W.E.B DuBois  Education  Good theory  (Not many   Yes  Academia  Positive view  weaknesses)  Political  of blacks equality Francis Harper  Ensuring   Broad appeal  Long   Yes children are   Spoke to all  investment wholesome races  Slow  Mothers are the   Unrealistic? center of a  prospering  society


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