New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

LAST 170, WEEK 3 In-Class NOTES

by: Stef Antonopoulos

LAST 170, WEEK 3 In-Class NOTES LAST 170

Marketplace > LAST 170 > LAST 170 WEEK 3 In Class NOTES
Stef Antonopoulos
GPA 3.75
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Introduction to Latin America

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Introduction to Latin America notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes are from 2/1 and 2/3 (lectures of week 3).
Introduction to Latin America
McKenna, E
Class Notes
Latin American, Latin America, Aztec, Inca, Incan, Indigenous, Spain, Americas, Hispaniola, Columbus, South America




Popular in Introduction to Latin America

Popular in Department

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stef Antonopoulos on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LAST 170 at a university taught by McKenna, E in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


Reviews for LAST 170, WEEK 3 In-Class NOTES


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/01/16
Lecture 4  Pre­Colombian Civilizations  Outline  ● Power in History  ● Case Study of Peru Region  ● Highlights of   ○ Aztec Empire  ○ Mayan Empire  ○ Tupi­Guarani  ○ Taino / Arawak  Announcements  ● Honors Credit: after class today  ● Map Quiz 1 (South America) this Friday Feb. %  ○ Blanks with numbers, country and capital, no word bank  ● Moodle Profile Pic (5 extra credit points)  ● Honor Code due Friday (5 extra credit points)  ● Register i­clickers    Mummies  ● According to One of your readings, this culture practiced mummification before the  Egyptians  ○ Chinchorro    The power in the story: Discourse (words) matter  ● Examples: Discovery, Encounter, Conquest  ○ False sense of the equal relationship  ○ Conquest: not equal outcome  ■ Indigenous = only victims, not whole picture  ● Depends on aim of people trying to say  ● Latin America, Hispanic America, America  1 LAST 170 2/1 Exam 1  ○ Latin America distinguished between Anglo­Saxon  ○ Hispanic American leaves out some of Latin America, for example, Haiti and  Brazil  ○ America has been questioned because it could refer to the entire continent  ■ Politically detrimental because it could be as if the other countries don’t  count  ● LAST 170 as a Non­Western Course  ○ Western Hemisphere and Western cultural influence  ■ It is a region of the world that  Resistance and Resistance­­ Power in complex  ways  ● Persistence: The firm continuance of something despite opposition  ○ Europeans brought religion to impose on indigenous people  ■ Indigenous beliefs still continue (persistence)   ● Resistance: withstanding or opposing something  ○ Example: Idea of Globalization and its forces that have been very strong  on certain countries  ○ Certain groups of people have opposed and withheld against these forces  Conceptual Tools  ● Power in the history (according to Trouillot)  ● Evidence of persistence and resistance  ○ Look for continuities from the past  ■ Whether resisting certain forces, or retaining certain traditions  (persistence)  Early States in South America  ● Caral ­ found in 2001  ● ca. 3000 BA (5000 years ago)  ● 1000 years older than other known civilization in the Americas  PERU CIVILIZATION  ● Peru had strong social structures  ● Generation of knowledge: science, arithmetic, astronomy → created long­lasting  building, measured times, administer population and huge area (organization  2 LAST 170 2/1 Exam 1  ● Priority of the arts, luxury goods­­ value of higher artistic expression  ● Identified by:  ○ The availability of a production surplus to support the staff in administrative and  political activities and other different specialties  Caral   ● Made earthquake resistant structures that are still emulated today.  QUIPU/KHIPU  ● String­knot that was used to communicate (recorded history for Incas and Caral)  Continuities Linking Past and Present in Peru  ● Spiral  ● Lineas De Nazca (mono) 400­650 A.D.  ○ Carved in the sand  ○ Why exist, why drawn  ● Caral Spiral ca. 3000 B.C.  ○ Monkey  ● Current Peru Logo has a spiral  ● Incas came out of all of these civilizations  The Inca Empire (1463­1532)  ● Origins in 13th Century  ● Expansion and Empire  ○ Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Peru have similarities  Key Feature of Andean Civilization  ● Incas were the ruling class  ● Quechua Language  ○ Indigenous, not everyone speaks spanish as main language  ● Textiles as main medium of communication­ khipu  ● Adaptation to tropical mountain environment  ○ Terraces*  ○ Varied use of the potato*  ○ Ability to farm or raise livestock (llama / alpacas)*  ● Administrative / logistical Unification of Large Areas  ○ Roads*  3 LAST 170 2/1 Exam 1  ○ Efficient communication (runners)  ○ Architecture*  ○ “State” ­managed economy*    Inca Terraces (Peru)  ● Adaptation to tropical mountain environment  Potatoes  ● Adaptation to environment / food preservation: freeze­dried potatoes (chuno)  The puna (4,000+) High grasslands of the Andes  ● Adaptation to tropical mountain environment; Raising livestock  ○ Help with labor work, producing food and wool  ● Llamas are still important in highlands today  Inca Road Works  ● 40,000 km (25,000 mi) of roadway  ○ Stones to make paths  ● Bridges  Monumental Works and Labor  ● surplus  ○ Many people were available to work  ● strong state power  ○ Powerful as rulers because they were able to organize people to create  monumental works  ■ EX: Machu Picchu  ● In depth, difficult, still standing  Social Organization  ● Ayllu: kinship / family groups  ○ social unit that existed on the Inca empire  ● Mita: reciprocal labor system; under Spanish became a rotational labor tax / draft  ○ contributed labor for the betterment of the society  Lifestyle of original Inhabitant of the Americas  Sedentary (with state organization and imperial projects)  4 LAST 170 2/1 Exam 1  ● Mesoamerican peoples (Aztex, Maya  ● Andean People (Inca)  Semi­sedentary peoples  ● Tupi­Guarani  ● Mapuche    Sedentary Peoples  ● Arawak  ● Chibcha   INSERT OTHER GROUP HERE  Non­sedentary peoples  ● Chichimecas  ● People of the Argentine pampas  Mayan Civilization (ca 1800 BC)  ● Height of civilization in the Classic Period: 250­900 AD  ● Only Pre­Colombian society to have a written language  ● Advanced ideas in mathematics and astrology  ○ calendar  Aztec Empire  ● 10 million subjects  ● Height of Empire (1300­1500 AD)  ● Capital: Tenochtitlan  ○ Present­day Mexico City Area  ○ Find eagle eating a snake → setup civilization at that location  ● Speakers of the Nahuatl Language  The Tupi and Tupi Guarani Linguistic Groups  ● Slash and burn agriculture  ○ to grow crops there  ○ stayed until unable to produce and move to other places  ● Semi­Sedentary  ● Almost exterminated by disease and slavery  Indigenous People of the Caribbean  ● Taino, Arawak, Carib  ● Pre­Conquest population of Hispaniola: est. 500,000­1,000,000  5 LAST 170 2/1 Exam 1  Europe  Announcements  ● Discussion Forum this week (Tomorrow 8AM)  ● Map Quiz 1 (South America) this Friday (Feb. 5) in Discussion  ● Bolivia has two different capitals and both are okay  ● Map Quiz 2 (Central America, CAribbean, Mexico, Next Friday (Feb.    Conceptual Tools  ● Consider the diversity of the Indigenous peoples and their pre­Columbian past  ● Centrality of Catholic religion  ● THink across 1492 divide    How can we distinguish among the Aztecs and the Tupi­Guarani people?  The Aztecs were a sedentary civilization with Imperial Projects, while the Tupi­Guarani were  semi­sedentary    15th Century Iberian Peninsula  ● Marriage of Isabel of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469  ● Dubbed the “Los Reyes Catolicos/The Catholic Monarchs” by Pope Alexander VI  A FIRST LOOK AT 1492  ● The Conquest of Grenada  ● The Capitulation of Granada By Francisco PRadilla:  ● Boabdil meets Ferdinand & Isabella  ● Unified spain under Christian Rule    Expulsion of the Jews from Spain  ● Edict of the Expulsion of the Jews: No Jewish people allowed to stay in the kingdom of  Spain    1 LAST 170 ⅔ EXAM 1  ● 1492:The Years Native Americans discovered Columbus lost at sea.    ● Christopher Columbus reports back to the crown that he had Reached Asia by sailing  West    ● Map drawn by Columbus = Hispaniola    DIVIDING THE WORLD BETWEEN SPAIN AND  PORTUGAL  ● 1492­Christopher Columbus Sails to the Caribbean    ● 1493: (Spanish born) Alexander VI, bull of Inter Caetera ­ 100 leagues west of Cape  Verde Island belong to Spain, and east to Portugal    ● 1494 King Joao II Negotiated with Isabel ­ the Treaty of Tordesilla **    Columbus in Cuba  ● Oct. 28, 1492  ○ The Land “the most lovely that the eyes have ever seen.”  ○ 1512: Spanish settlement begins  ○ Strategic location  ■ First European Spanish would arrive to before the new world  ● Staging ground for the mainland  ○ Explore from there  DEVASTATION OF THE INDIES  ● Bartolome de las Casas  ○ Fought against  ● encomienda  ○ Priests with more power  ○ Entrustment with indigenous people to work as slaves for them  ○ Forced labor  ● Hatuey­ Taino leader  ○ Stood up to Spaniards because he didn’t want to convert to the Spaniards  ■ About to burn him by the stake  2 LAST 170 ⅔ EXAM 1  ● Tell them that last chance to heaven  ○ Heaven when the Christians go? I wanna go to Hell  ○ Bartolome thinks this isn’t important for them to accomplish  PORTUGUESE EXPLORATION  16th Century map (ca. 1519)    PORTUGUESE ARRIVAL IN PRESENT DAY BRAZIL  ● April 1500, present­day Bahia  ● Pedro Alvares Cabral  ● Colonization rather than conquest  ○ 1. Portugal was very busy, many other colonies  ■ Did not know extent of Brazil  ● Did not know they had to worry to conquer  ○ 2. No obvious wealth in Brazil  ■ Major empires, mined valuable emperors NOPE NOT BRAZIL  ● Not a necessity to get it from there  ○ 3. No Massive Empires   ■ Hadn’t seen a dominant group to overcome  ● Protect indigenous in order to convert them    SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE AZTECS  ● NOTTTT Cortes says he was welcomes by Moctezuma as the reincarnation of  Quetzalcoatl  ● IT IS the descendent of a chieftain  ● Hernan Cortes ­ seen as chieftain, criticized if the truth  ● Quetzalcoatl ­deity no Hernan  ● Moctezuma II  ● Cortes was stationed in Cuba (staging ground)  ● Permitted to Land expedition to MExico  ● Landed in Veracruz  ● Wanted to explore more, not obey mandate to stay on shore  ● Wants to explore more because made a leader at Mexico  ○ A lot of indigenous contact  ● Many were Aztecs but not all  ○ Meets them  ■ Some opposition to spaniards  3 LAST 170 ⅔ EXAM 1  ● Finds out a lot about them  ● Some big empire that he is going to come across  ○ Tenochtitlan (MExico City) Capital  ■ Not suspicious of the Spaniards, maybe if was then he would have not  ○   ● Moctezuma Captures  ● War Between 1519­1521  ○ Spanish against Spanish  ○ Indians fighting each other  ■ Both powerful  ■ Not same mentality  ■ Diversity  ■   ● Disease  ○ European diseases that struck the indigenous  ■ 2 months outbreak of smallpox that killed half of Azteks.  ● Siege of Tenochtitlan (1521)  ○ Spaniards cut off because around water  ○ August→ Aztec Surrender  INDIAN ALLIES  ● Malintzin/Malinche/Dona Marina/ Malinalli  ● 200,000 Indian Allies assisted Cortes  ○ Found way to Aztecs before   ○ Indigenous interpreter  ■ Picked up Spanish easily  ■ Became his lover  ● Mother of the Mexican People  ○ Offspring and descendants of that  ● Critique as being traitor to the indigenous people  ○ Helped him in his efforts with understanding what was  going on  ■ TRAITOR AND MOTHER FIGURE  ● Preferred outsider to her own  Decline of the Inca Empire  ● Internal civil war between brothers Atahualpa and Huascar  ○ FAther died so needed to decide rule  ○ Internal conflict  ● Spanish Invasion under Pizarro 1526­1533  ● Cajamarca and Emperor Atahualpa’s death in 1533  4 LAST 170 ⅔ EXAM 1  ● Guaman Poma’s depiction of Sapa Inca Atahualpa surrounded by Spaniards    TROUILLOT IN CONTEXT  In which of the following do we see evidence of the potential divergence between the  socio­historic process and historical narrative?  ● The arrival of Columbus to the Americas  ○ They do not know everything that went on because he was the only one that  reported  ■ Killed the people  ○ Overexaggerated why cuba was was the most beautiful  ■ For his own reason  ● THe meeting between   ● THe legend of Hatuey  ROLES OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES  ● Allies to the Spaniards  ● Persistence  ● Resistance  ● Religious Projects  ○ Subjects  5 LAST 170 ⅔ EXAM 1 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.