Popular in DNA: Identify and Disease
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Notetaker on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see DNA: Identify and Disease in Biology at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
More than one origin in replication of DNA. Rich in AT pairs. Easier to pull apart. Two versus three bonds. Polymerase adds new nucleotides. Nucleotides are floating around. 10,000 revolutions per minute. Genome is all 46 chromosomes. DNA replication in S phase. Single cells, replicate all 46 chromosomes. H bonds can be broken at 100 degrees Celsius. DNA Polymerase needs the 3’ end to replicate DNA. Goes to the right. Leading strand. Always grows from 5’-3’ Add more primers on the lagging strand. Lagging discontinuous. Oakazaki fragments. Polymerase one comes along and replaces RNA with DNA. Ligase comes and seals Okazaki fragments. 100,000 base errors editing error rate in replication is 10,000,000 PCR Replication: In Vitro, all 46 Chromosomes, 1 copy-> 2, Helicase, RNA Primase, DNA Polymerase iii PCR In Vitro, just small part of 1 chromosome, 1 copy to millions, heat, DNA Primers, Taq Polymerase-high temp, Chromosomes have genes scattered: Most none coding for making proteins. It can afford to change a lot. A lot of mistakes are passed along to the kids. STRs-Short Tandem Repeats. Contains a string of repeated letters. One code after another. 2,4 genotype on that locus. Dad ATGGATGGATGGATGG (4) Mom ATGGATGG (2) Through PCR: Taq Polymerase, dNTPs (A,T,C,G) , DNA Primers, Buffer(Helps reaction go), Hair DNA Heating, Cooling, Heating. Each time double copies of DNA which is exponential. Primers to attach to DNA needs to be very specific. Flanking Regions are on the sides of the repeated STRs. Primers can attach to those flanking regions. Taq Polymerase fills in the middle of the STRs after the primers are attached to the flanking regions. 95 C denaturation heating 50-60 C annealing-(to connect to) Cooling 72 C Elongation (fill in) Heating Drawing helps understand and teach Comprehensive exams No reason not to get 100% on the homework which are on the test. Read 1-1 1-2 Do the preparation Study Guide Read Syllabus and do the quiz Complete Survey Take pretest in the testing center Chromosomes: Big piece of DNA. Has two ends that are called telomeres. Has/made up of nucleotides(bases) Has a bunch of nucleotides zoomed out. 00000000 to ----------Nucleotides are formed together to make a long string. Adenine Thymidine Cytesine Guanidine A-T C-G 46 Chromosomes from our body, 23 mom 23 dad Chromosome 1 from mom and dad biggest Genes-instructions-coding regions Regulatory regions-Found in front of genes. (tell when, where, how much of the gene to make) Non-coding regions Chromosome 1 from mom and dad are homologous chromosomes. Have the same genes, same size, same centromere, same banding pattern. Notes: 1-14-2016 Stages: duplicate, condense, crossing over, separate. DNA:Double Stranded; Anti- Parallel Nitrogen-Rich Base Phosphate Sugar Deoxyribonucleic Acid Nucleic Acids: DNA-Deoxy and RNA-Ribose Hydrogen Bonds only fall apart when heated up. HydrogenBo Covalent Bonds Adenine Thymine Cytosin A=T A=T Anti-Parallel. Three prime end: Five Prime End: H H H H DNA:Anti-Parellel, double stranded, Helix Non Coding DNA Telomeres: Ends of our DNA, protect against aging. Junk DNA: No effect, Satellite. Can be mutated without effecting us. Introns: Exon and Introns. Intron no message, exon has message. 2 Pieces of DNA would come from the gene of… Karyotype: Picture of our chromosomes. Can look at banding pattern, size, centromere location, and the genes they carried. P arm is smallest; q arm is bigger. Centromere is the belt. Homologous Chromosomes same size, banding pattern, same genes, and different alleles of a gene. Trisomy three. Diploid and haploid: Terms referring to the number of chromosomes in the cell. Diploid has pairs. Haploid has single chromosomes and has n. Diploid is 2n. n=23 2n=46 Diploid: Cells in the body Haploid: Gametes, sperm or egg. Genes are too tiny to see in a karyotype. Adding chromosomes does not change species. Meiosis Activity Which cells are diploid Which cells are haploid When crossing over occurs When independent assortment occurs The sister chromatids The homologous chromosomes Meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 Independent assortment and crossing over makes you you! A chromosome is still a chromosome without the sister chromosome.
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