NFS 3020 Week 3 & 4 Notes
NFS 3020 Week 3 & 4 Notes NFS 3020
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurora Moberly on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 3020 at Southern Utah University taught by Artis Grady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Sports Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Introduction to Nutrition - Food that provides us with nutrients: Carbohydrates (CHO), Protein, Fat, Vitamins, Minerals, Water - Nutrients basic functions: Energy, build, repair, regulate - Creating a food plan should include variety (balance), moderation, wholesomeness - We get basic nutrition guidelines from MyPyramid, ChooseMyPlate, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Dietary Reference Intakes, Daily Values - Dietary Guidelines for Americans: Brief science based statements and text published by the Federal government that provide advice for healthy Americans age 2+ about food choices and physical activity to promote health and prevent disease - Mandated by law - Published every 5 years - Based on the preponderance of scientific evidence - Cornerstone of Federal nutrition policy - Basis for nutrition education/promotion activities - 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: - Mission of the guidelines: An eating pattern is all food and beverages you consume, should include an appropriate calorie level. Guidelines focus on creating healthy eating patterns to prevent chronic disease. Healthy eating patterns can vary based on culture and dietary restrictions. - Guidelines: 1. Follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan 2. Focus on variety, nutrient density and amount 3. Limit calories from added sugars, saturated fats and reduce sodium intake 4. Shift to healthier food and beverage choices 5. Support healthy eating patterns for all - Healthy Eating Patterns Include: - Variety of vegetables from all subgroups (leafy greens, red and orange, legumes, starchy) - Fruits, especially whole - Grains, half whole - Fat-free or low-fat dairy - Varied protein sources including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, nuts, seeds, legumes and soy products - Healthy oils - Healthy Eating Patterns Limit: - Saturated Fats <10% daily energy - Trans Fats, as few as possible - Added Sugars <10% daily energy - Sodium <2300 mg - Alcohol Consumption: 1 drink/day for women, 2 drinks/day for men - Limits for cholesterol have been removed Energy Metabolism and Fatigue - Mechanical Energy: Capacity to do work - Chemical Energy: Potential energy stored in foods (CHO, Protein, Fat) - Electrical Energy: Nerve impulses - Heat: Byproduct that is released from the breakdown of food, measured in kilocalorie - Kilocalorie: Heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree centigrade Calorimetry Physiological Value CHO 4.3 4 Fat 9.45 9 Protein 5.65 4 Alcohol 7.0 7 - Our bodies aren’t as effective as the calometer as converting calories to energy so that is why there is a slight difference in the two numbers - ATP/PC System (Phosphagen system or Anaerobic system): - Provides immediate energy through the breakdown of these stored high energy phosphates - Uses ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and PC (Phosphocreatine) - Will provide energy for maximal intensity, short duration exercise for between 10- 15 sec before it fatigues - It provides the body with the most power because it produces ATP more quickly than any other system - The phosphate bonds with the adenosine are high-energy bonds, enzymes cause bond to break and energy is released - Once the reaction is complete ADP + P remains - Phosphocreatine’s bond breaks to regenerate ATP from ADP + P - Lactic Acid System (Anaerobic Glycolysis): - Resynthesizes ATP without the involvement of oxygen - ATP is manufactured from the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid in the muscle cells - Two ATP are formed for each glucose molecule metabolized - During high-intensity exercise for 40s-2m the lactic acid system is used - Carbs are the only nutrient used in the lactic acid system - Glycogen Glucose (ATP generated) Pyruvate Lactic Acid - Oxygen system (Aerobic system) - Glucose, Fat and sometimes protein enter the Krebs cycle then go through the electron transport chain to form ATP - Lots of oxygen required - Provides ATP slower but has an almost unlimited supply - Type 1 Muscle Fibers: Slow-twitch red fibers - Aerobic, uses the oxygen system - Uses ATP-PC system more slowly than other muscle fibers - Predominate during low intensity exercises - Type 2a Muscle Fibers: Fast-twitch red fibers - Aerobic but can also use anaerobic lactic acid - Type 2b: Fast-twitch white fibers - Anaerobic - Type 2a & 2b use ATP-PC at a faster rate and come into play, as exercise is more intense - Causes of fatigue during exercise: - Increased serotonin, which depresses neurotransmitters - Decreased levels of PC, glycogen, blood sugar or blood amino acids - Excess lactic acid affecting pH - Less blood volume for O 2ransport due to dehydration - Hyperthermia due to dehydration - Disturbed electrolyte balance - Delaying fatigue onset: - Physiological Training: Increases energy stores and metabolic efficiency - Psychological Training: Mental strategies and pain tolerance - Biomechanical Training: Movement patterns, equipment or body composition - Nutrition: Importance determined by intensity/duration Human Metabolism - Anabolism: Construction or building-up - Catabolism: Tearing down process - Metabolic Rate: How rapidly the body is using its energy stores - Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE): 60-75% of total kcal - BMR: Basal Metabolic Rate - 11x body weight in pounds for women - 12x body weight in pounds for men - Minus 2% per decade if over age 20 - RMR: Resting Metabolic Rate - REE: Resting Energy Expenditure - TDEE depends on size, age, gender, endocrine gland secretions, body composition - Eating: 5-10% of total kcal - SDA: Specific Dynamic Affect - DIT: Dietary Induced Thermogenesis - TEF: Thermic Effect of Food - Activity: 15-30% of total kcal - EMR: Exercise Metabolic Rate - TEE: Thermic Effect of Exercise - PAEE: Physical Activity Energy Expenditure - ExEE: Exercise Energy Expenditure - NEAT: Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis - To maintain body weight in a young active person eat 15kcal per pound of body weight Test 1 2/3/16 NFS 3020 Carbohydrates - CHO: Grains, veggies, fruits, milk, sugar and sweets - Simple Sugars: - Monosaccharide’s: Glucose, fructose, galactose - Disaccharides: Sucrose, lactose, maltose - Complex CHO (Polysaccharides): - Starch: Composed of glucose - Glycogen: Composed of glucose - Fiber: Insoluble and soluble - Glycogen: Made of long chains of glucose - We do not eat glycogen, it is formed by the body for glucose storage - Stored in the muscles and in the liver - Glycemic Index: Represents the effect of a particular food on the rate and amount of blood sugar increase - Based on equal grams of CHO, not on average serving sizes - When foods are eaten in combination the glycemic index will be altered - Glycemic Load: Considers both glycemic index and amount of carbohydrate consumed - GL= GI x g of dietary carbohydrate - Provides an overview of daily diet and can be used to compare day to day intake - General Guidelines for Using Glycemic Index - High-glycemic CHO can be used before exercise by athletes who are not sensitive to having their blood glucose lowered - Low-glycemic CHO are recommended before exercise for athletes who have symptoms of early fatigue or hypoglycemia - Moderate to high glycemic CHO are recommended during exercise to raise blood glucose and promote CHO oxidation - Moderate to high glycemic CHO are recommended following exercise to replenish glycogen stores - Hormones aid in the regulation of normal blood glucose levels: Insulin, glucagon, epinephrine cortisol - Insulin: Pancreas releases this hormone when the blood sugar is too high - Glucagon: Pancreas releases this hormone when the blood sugar is too low - Epinephrine Cortisol: Released when blood sugar is too low - Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) - Causes a number of physical symptoms: - Dizziness - Shaky - Headache - Grumpy - Hunger - Contributes to fatigue - Has negative consequences for the athlete Test 1 2/3/16 NFS 3020 - Often called bonk or crash - Can occur when a person engages in prolonged exercise of high intensity and liver glycogen becomes depleted - In some people if a large amount of high-glycemic CHO is eaten within 30 to 60 minutes of exercise hypoglycemia occurs - Blood Glucose: - Circulates in the blood - Used for energy; especially by the brain - Converted to glycogen for storage - In liver: where it may be returned to blood - In muscles: reconverted to glucose for energy - Stored as fat if overall kcal intake is high - Excreted by the kidneys; this is never healthy CHO stores in the body of a normal sedentary adult Location Grams Kcals Blood Glucose 25 100 Liver Glycogen 75-100 300-400 Muscle Glycogen 300-400 1200-1600 - If CHO in the body is inadequate we can make new glucose from some amino acids and glycerol in a process call gluconeogenesis - Two essentials: - Maintaining adequate liver glycogen to replace blood glucose - Maintaining muscle glycogen for energy - Usage of Glucose in Exercise is Affected by: CHO intake, intensity and duration of exercise, degree of training - CHO is most important for endurance events lasting more than 60-90m or in prolonged sports with intermittent bouts of high intensity exercise (ex. soccer, rugby) - General CHO Guidelines for Endurance Athletes: - Eat a high CHO diet regularly; Amount of glycogen stores is more important than anything taken during or right before - Take CHO in during activities greater than 60-90m - Eat CHO rich food after performance - Train muscles to maximize glycogen stores - Experiment with CHO intake during training before using in competition - The absolute quantity of carbohydrate rather than the percentage of energy from carbohydrate is important for exercise performance - Specific CHO Intake Recommendations: - The typical US diet supplies 3-5g CHO/kg body weight per day - Recommendations for athletes: - 3-5g CHO/kg per day for light training - 5-7g/kg for moderate intensity training, 60m/day - 6-10g/kg for moderate to high intensity endurance exercise, 1-3hr/day - 8-12g/kg for moderate to high intensity, 4-5hr/day Test 1 2/3/16 NFS 3020 - Pre-exercise: Consume 1-4g CHO/kg body weight 1-4 hours before exercise - If exercise is early and no meal is possible, give 30g easily digested CHO 5m before - During Exercise: - Consume 30-60g of CHO every hour during exercise - Consume 80-90g per hour if exercise is longer than 2.5-3hr - In exercise less than 45m intake is not practical or needed - 45-75m of high intensity training small amounts of CHO may be helpful - After Exercise: - Exercise 8hrs apart, consume CHO immediately after exercise - Consume 1-1.2g CHO/kg/hr for the first 4 hours of glycogen depleting exercise - Early refueling enhanced by small amounts of CHO every 15-30m - Use medium to high glycemic foods - Add small amounts of protein (15-20g) to the first feeding to stimulate muscle protein repair - Magic 2 hours after you need to consume 1.5g CHO/kg within 30m after exercise - Followed by an additional 1.5g of CHO/kg feeding within 2 hours - Mealtime: High quality, nutrient dense - Around exercise: Refined, simple sugars - Rapidly Oxidized Carbohydrates (60g/h): - Glucose (Starch breakdown) - Sucrose (Table sugar, glucose plus fructose) - Maltose (Two glucose molecules) - Maltodextrins (Starch breakdown) - Amylopectin (Starch breakdown) - Slowly Oxidized Carbohydrates (30g/hr): - Fructose (Sugar from honey, fruits) - Galactose (Sugar found in sugar beets) - Isomaltulose (Sugar found in honey and sugarcane) - Trehalose (Sugar found in microorganisms) - Amylose (Starch breakdown) - Solid vs Liquid CHO: - Liquid pros: Replace sweat loss, leaves stomach rapidly - Liquid cons: Lag volume, harder to carry, little variety, doesn’t give satiety - Solid pros: Compact, easy to carry, variety and satiation - Solid cons: Must take with additional water, does not replace sweat loss Day Training CHO g/kg/day 1 Tapered 10-12 2 Tapered 10-12 3 Rest 10-12 4 Competition - CHO loading: - Works for endurance athletes Test 1 2/3/16 NFS 3020 - Causes holding of extra fluid - Better than someone on a high protein/fat diet - High CHO diet without tapering exercise will not load - Eating lots of CHO night or two before competition is not loading but may be beneficial 36 to 48 hrs after last exercise - Diabetes and Exercise: - Type 2: Exercise can improve glycemic control and facilitate weight loss - Type 1: Must have exercise carefully balanced with food and insulin intake so that optimal blood glucose levels can be maintained with activity - Adjustments may be necessary in: Medications, meal planning, exercise regimen - Input from a specialized diabetes team may be essential Fat - Fat is necessary for: - Calories and energy; especially for growing teens - Essential fatty acids - Fat soluble vitamins: ADEK - Other nutrients found in food containing fat - Prevents amenorrhea - Adequate testosterone - Makes food palatable, tender and appealing - Act as an insulator and shock absorber - For athletes: - Don’t restrict fats too much, could miss out on major benefits - Don’t eat however much fat you want because there could be adverse affects as well - LDL cholesterol could increase - Could affect an athletes cardiovascular health - Guidelines for fat intake: - 20-30% of kcal from fat - Eat <10% of kcal as saturated fat - Decrease use of hydrogenated fat and trans-fatty acids - Use oils to replace solid fats when possible - Include omega-3 fatty acids - Increase the amount and variety of seafood consumed - Use artificial fats in moderation - How much fat: - Calculate calorie need then calculate grams of carbs and protein, whatever calories are left over is for your fats - Energy from fat: - Fat yields more ATP than carbs do - 1 glucose molecule=36-38 ATP using 6 O 2 - 1 18 carbon fatty acid=147 ATP using 26 O (772 more ATP) Test 1 2/3/16 NFS 3020 - We have an extremely large supply of fat but it is hard for the oxygen demands to keep up Glycogen Fat Duration Short (<1hour) Long Intensity High (70-80% kcal from Less (40% CHO) glycogen) more lactic acid so less FFA available Diet If high CHO If CHO low Training More effective if more trained Available O 2 If 2 is low If 2 is adequate - Theories for using more fat for energy: - More training means more fat used for energy - MCT oil use but it is not glycogen sparing - Oral fat ingestion or fat infusions: Impractical during exercise, causes GI distress - High fat diets: Long term negative effects, speculative at best - L-carnitine: Transfers long chain fatty acids to the mitochondria, increases exercise capacity in ill patients but not in healthy people - Caffeine
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