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Psych 302 learning and memory

by: jh1371

Psych 302 learning and memory Psych 302

Cal State Fullerton
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About this Document

ch. 1 review and notes
Learning and Memory
Dr. Wilson-Ozima
Class Notes
learning and memory, CSUF, Psychology, psychology302




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by jh1371 on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 302 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Wilson-Ozima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Friday, February 5, 2016 * Ch. 1 Review 1) Definitions of Learning and Memory Learning: Memory: - related to each other/intrinsically involved with one another 2) Clive Wearing - has amnesia, forgets immediately 3) History of L & M - related to Darwin and evolutionary theory 4) Charles Darwin - systems have evolved and has aided with survival 5) Experimental: Ebbinghaus, Pavlov Ebbinghaus: test subject Pavlov: studied digestion, noted salivation through classical conditioning 6) Behaviorism: Watson, Hull, Tolman, Skinner Skinner: Watson: Tolman: Hull: composed a mathematical equation to explain behavior 7) Cognitive Appraoch 8) Behaviorists study behavior / Cognitivists study memory - introspection, strict behaviorism, cognitive maps 9) Evolution of behaviorism 10) Timeline 1 Friday, January 29, 2016 Ch. 1 • Learning: relatively permanent change in behavior that results from some type of experience * Experience - stimuli / contact with participation in exposure to stimuli * Learning - relatively permanent changes in potential for behavior that results from experience • Memory: mental process for acquiring and retaining info for later retrieval / mental storage system enables these processes LEARNING AND ADAPTATION - Adaptation to the environment happens two ways: * Evolution & Learning * Species behaviors are shaped by learning to the extent that their environments are complex and changing --> plasticity • Behavioral Plasticity: flexibility, malleable (ex. Learning) • Canalized behavior: robust / strong behavior (ex. Evolution) IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING: Survival - Learning is the mechanism by which organisms can adapt to changing environments MEMORABLE MEMORY * How important is memory --> Clive Wearing (couldn't form new memories video) HISTORICAL VIEW • Nativism (Plato): knowledge was inborn / nature - souls gather this knowledge from past life • Empiricism (Aristotle) - knowledge is gained from experience / nurture - children are born with minds that have yet to be written on • Descartes -French philosopher / mathematician 1 Friday, January 29, 2016 - Cognition ergo sum (I think therefore I know) - Dualism: mind and body are separate entities THEIR DEBATE * Debate between nativism and empiricism --> nature vs nurture Charles Darwin: Natural Selection • Theory of Natural Selection: mechanism for how evolution occurs * Species evolve when a trait they possess meets 3 conditions 1) trait must be heritable 2) must vary having a range of forms 3) trait must make an individual more "fit" and able to increase reproductive process Herman Von Ebbinghaus: Experimental Psychology - father of memory research Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning - collect dog saliva / sight of food made dog salivate - DV: dog saliva / IV: buzzer paired with food Edward Thornedike: Trail and error learning REIGN OF BEHAVIORISM 1920's • Clark Hull - E = (H x D x K) - I • Edward Tolman - cognitive maps and goal-directed behavior- - behavior has a purpose and is cognitive - Used maze to study rat behavior • B.F. Skinner - Operant conditioning - Skinner box (ex. Electric shock) - Reinforcement schedules • W.K. Estes - mathematical psychology 2 Friday, January 29, 2016 - student of skinner • George Miler - measured short term memory - Average digit span one can remember is 7 digits, +/- 2 • David Rumelhart - connection isn't models - information is contained in "nodes" SOME DISTINCTIONS • Behaviorists study learning • Cognitivists study memory • Methodological behaviorism - direct relationship between changes in environment and changes in observable behavior / doesn't account for motives or internal events (feelings) • Neobehaviorism - theorists make use of intervening variables to help explain the relationship between environment and behavior • Cognitive Behaviorism - theorists make use of intervening variables • Skinner's Molar View - only reflexive behaviors are automatically - Reflexive behaviors are distinguished from behaviors that are controlled by their consequences, which are more flexible and less predictable - We should explain the behavior by referring to past experience (continuous experience > get better) - Pavlov noted a reflexive behavior - Operant conditioning: reward and punishment Thornedike • - noted that cat improved each time trial was redone (cats learned how to do it) • Skinner's View of Genetic Factors - behavior is fundamentally the result of the interaction between genes and the environment - Genetic factors are largely unmodifiable 3 Friday, January 29, 2016 - To assume that a behavior pattern has a strong genetic basis is to assume also that little can be done to alter it - Skinner believed that genes have a great impact on behavior but behaviors can change - Behaviors with favorable outcomes are more likely to be repeated / those do not lead to favorable outcomes are less likely to be repeated 4


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