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Notes Jan 25-29

by: Emma Notetaker

Notes Jan 25-29 KIN202

Emma Notetaker
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About this Document

KIN202 Notes from week of Jan 25-29.
General Nutrition for Health & Human Performance
Wesley Smith
Class Notes
Kinesiology, nutrition




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN202 at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see General Nutrition for Health & Human Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
KIN202 Day 5 January 25, 2016   • Old (Original) Food Guide Pyramid o 6-11 servings of bread, cereal, rice & pasta o 2-4 servings of fruit, 3-5 servings of vegetables o 2-3 servings of meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, nuts, and milk, yogurt, and cheese o Use fats oils and sweets sparingly o Issues: ▯ Too much bread, rice, etc. • And no specifications of what was better source: ex: could be Mac n cheese ▯ A lot of food ▯ USDA influenced by corporate food industry recommendations • Ex: if they cut out dairy or red meat, there would be huge backlash • Newer Pyramid and My Plate o Doesn’t include water – most essential • Harvard Health y Eating Plate is best model*** o Not under influences of keeping lobbying groups out – all research based o Vegetables – the more vegetables and greater variety, the better – no limit o Eat plenty of fruits of all colors ▯ Most of nutrients in an apple are in the skin (90%) ▯ In fruit smoothies – lots of antioxidants but lots of sugar • Pulp is healthier ▯ Paleo diet isn’t 80% meat – true paleo diet is about 85% fruit – no free sugar – fruit with fiber o Drink water, tea, or coffee (with little or no sugar). Limit milk/dairy (1-2 servings/day) and juice (1 small glass/day). Avoid sugary drinks. ▯ Coffee isn’t bad for you / your heart • Red bull is – not about caffeine – about actual coffee and tea – antioxidants o Eat whole grains (brown rice, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain pasta). Limit refined grains (white rice and white bread). o Choose fish, poultry, beans, and nuts; limit red meat; avoid bacon, cold cuts, and other processed meats. ▯ More red and processed meat in diet, shorter lifespan KIN202 Day 5 January 25, 2016   • More white meat in diet, slight reduction ▯ Processed meats can last a long time because of conservatives ▯ Swordfish, tilefish have mercury – small fish and whole water fish are better (sardines, salmon, etc.) • Limit tuna o Use healthy oils for cooking, on salad, and at table. Limit butter and avoid trans fat. • Many supplements aren’t good – a lot of bad supplements can be put on the shelves without being tested much o Fish oil from whole foods is good o Certain omega supplements are good • Dietary Reference Intakes o Recommended daily allowance (RDA) ▯ Started in 1941 to prevent deficiencies ▯ Currently used more to prevent over-consumption and toxicity ▯ RDA is set up to prevent deficiency in over 98% of Americans – 2% will still either get too much or not enough of it • Ex: 1000 mg of vitamin C – one person might excrete all of it, another might excrete none of it • Hard to come up with guidelines and they change a lot – changes most, more than AI ▯ Minimum requirement (maximum for things like sodium) – never the goal* o The Adequate Intake (AI) ▯ Same thing as RDA except one small difference – AI is based on less data – not as certain about these recommendations ▯ When RDA is not set due to insufficient data, the AI is a reasonable judgment based on limited scientific basis. ▯ Not as well established as the RDA ▯ For things that are more minute in our diet ▯ Minimum requirement (maximum for things like sodium) – never the goal* o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) ▯ Range of intakes for an energy source which prevents chronic disease and adequate intakes of essential nutrients KIN202 Day 5 January 25, 2016   ▯ Individuals below or above this range are at risk for poor health • PRO: 10-35%, CHO (carbs): 45%-65%, FAT: 20-35% o Carbs only required for activity – couch potatoes need to limit ▯ Atkins diet correct about limiting carbs but not in having more meats – AMDR sets range of what you can eat • Protein o AMDR 10-35% o Females 46G per day males 56 g per day (ambiguous because people are different sizes) o 0.8 G per kg of body weight (KGBW) per day RDA (minimum) o High level of satiety, high thermic effect of food o 2.0 G per KGBW is upper limit for protein – debatable because people replace with sugar and fat ▯ 1 g of protein per KGBW is good to lose weight ▯ 3-4 g might be too high o Complete vs. incomplete ▯ Complete: All essential amino acids • Animal proteins are always complete • Quinoa and soy • 30% - fish, white meat • Lesser amounts of high quality organic grass fed red meat ▯ Incomplete: Missing some essential amino acids • Plants proteins are usually incomplete except quinoa and soy • Plants 70% - fibers fruit vegetables o Protein is bad for weight gain – makes you feel and increases metabolism ▯ Lower RDA of protein for people who weight lift KIN202 Day 6 January 27, 2016   • Annette Larkin video – 70 years old raw vegan – very healthy o Like case study with husband – 54 years of her eating vegan and him remaining same o She ages more gracefully • Fat o AMDR o 10 G/D Linoleig (18-2 omega6 ) ▯ Common omega 6 (18 carbons long, 2 places with double bond) ▯ Used by enzymes that promote things like inflammation and blood clotting ▯ Aspirin blocks enzymes that produce omega 6 fatty acids o 1 G/D is alpha linolenig (18-3 omega 3 ) (ALA, DHA, EPA) ▯ Get in cell membranes and don’t promote inflammation and blood clotting ▯ Promote hormones that dilate arteries ▯ Critical to development of brain ▯ Help reduce uptake of serotonin • In Germany, prescribed as antidepressants ▯ ALA - Seeds, plants • Only 16% gets converted ▯ DHA, EPA – omega 3 in fish – increasing brain function, lowering blood pressure and inflammation o Common ratio omega3:omega6 is 1:40 ▯ But we don’t even get good omega3 ▯ Blue pigment from blueberries, strawberries, purple cabbage – anthoyani • 100% gets converted at same time – smoothie with blueberries and chia seeds (only 16%) ▯ Shoot for 10:1 but ideally it should be 4:1 o Saturated < 10% (however, see 2010 Micha Review Summary) ▯ Looked at all diff kinds of foods and how it effects blood lipids (LDLs) and found that carbs and saturated fat have no difference in diet ▯ Dietary carbohydrates = saturated fat in effects on blood lipids ▯ 12 C (loric acid) is better than carbohydrates on blood lipids o Cholesterol 300 MG/D ▯ Removed from current SDA guidelines KIN202 Day 6 January 27, 2016   o 9 calories of fat per gram (vs. protein’s 4 calories per gram) o Fat has low thermic affect (2%) o Calorically dense o Low fat ice cream – people eat more of low fat ice cream than they would regular ice cream so calories remain same o Only fat we make from sugar is palmitic acid ▯ Saturated fat o Fat intake replaced with carbohydrates – saturated fat ▯ More likely to get obese and less sensitive to insulin o Saturated fat – long chain fatty acids ▯ Hurt cholesterol levels – carried in lipo-proteins (LDLs) – stiff walls – fat delivered to cells ▯ 16C, 18C (palmitic) ▯ If it’s saturated, since it’s stiff, it doesn’t bind well to receptors and stays in circulation ▯ 12 C – lowers LDLs – loric acid • Coconut oil • Raises HDLs, lowers LDLs • Good saturated fat ▯ Animal fat (flesh food) has linear relationship to heart disease • Saturated fat has linear relationship to heart disease • Cholesterol has linear relationship to heart disease • Lack of vegetables has “ “ ▯ We make saturated fats from excess carbohydrates o Unsaturated fat is fluid and does good things for blood o Trans Fat ▯ Take unsaturated fat and make it saturated by partially hydrogenating it ▯ Unnatural – not biologically natural – we don’t metabolize very well, if at all • Fat cells will stay fat longer because it can’t burn as easily ▯ Partially hydrogenated oil has trans fat ▯ First designed for making good soap that lasts a long time • Vegetable oil, hydrogenate, make solid soap bar ▯ Then made food fat, sold it to Americans as being healthier (assumption b/c saturated is bad) KIN202 Day 6 January 27, 2016   • Saved money, more preserved food, texture better, lasts longer, etc. ▯ Having something in your body that doesn’t belong promotes inflammation ▯ Not meant for human consumption ▯ Trans fat free – if serving size is down and you have less than .5 g trans fat per serving, you can say trans fat free • Look at ingredients more than food label o Companies want to make it look better and bad things to appear less • Jelly beans – fat free, McDonald’s fries / potato chips – cholesterol free, chicken – hormone free – PURE MARKETING o Fries and chips cholesterol free b/c cholesterol is only in animal fat – even if it’s worst vegetable oil fried, 0 cholesterol in that o Jelly beans – fat free b/c they’re made up of sugar but in body it becomes fat o Chicken – no animal product is allowed to be treated with hormones legally – give antibiotics instead, cause animal to grow dramatically like hormones • All Natural in meat means nothing was added to it as a filler o Taco Bell meat is 33% meat, 66% other stuff like sand – less meat than dog food KIN202 Day 7 January 29, 2016   • Carbohydrates o AMDR, o 130 G per day o Fiber ▯ Females 25 g of fiber / males 35 g of fiber ▯ 20 g of carbs to 4 g of fiber ratio (5:1) • Very unlikely to find ▯ Supplementing fiber isn’t beneficial – diet with high fiber is good – reduction of diseases ▯ Increases thermic affect of food (metabolism) ▯ High fiber diet makes you more full (like protein) ▯ Increases fecal bulk (to dilute carcinogens) ▯ Lowers cholesterol absorption (binds to intestinal lipids) • Don’t absorb as much fat ▯ less calories are absorbed, less cholesterol levels, makes diet less fattening ▯ Only supplement approved for weight loss: Alli • Binds to intestinal lipids – anal leakage • FDA approved supplement • Counterfeit ▯ Will lower glycemic index of carbohydrates • Glycemic index: Index of how quickly sugar gets absorbed into bloodstream • Sugar gets absorbed into bloodstream slower with fiber • Ex: having white rice with black beans makes white rice a little bit better – same with cheeseburger and lots of vegetables ▯ Lowers gut inflammation • Do not use antibacterial mouthwash (messes with immune system – we are meant to have some bacteria) o Sugar < 25% of diet o 45-65% of diet (macros) ▯ More active people should be on higher end and less on lesser end • There are some foods that have serotonin (anti-depressant), some that reduce anxiety, etc. o Beans for breakfast can lower anxiety KIN202 Day 7 January 29, 2016   o Omega 3 fatty acids reduce depression o Poor diet affects behavior – ex: moody kids with Mickey waffle and syrup for breakfast • Vitamin water law suit o Unhealthy, just sugar water ▯ vitamin water won – convinced court that vitamin water never suggested it was healthy • Vitamins and Minerals (need to be memorized) o Fat Soluble Vitamins (ADEK) ▯ Vitamin A: (female 700 MCG; male 900 MCG) • Mango, carrots, squash, tomatoes, broccoli, green leafy vegetables (B, A, C, K also in green leafy vegetables) – (orange and yellow vegetables) • Powerful fat soluble antioxidant o Oxidation (like rusting you see on metal – damage to molecules making them unstable and preventing aging of them) • Anti-carcinogen – carrots make skin orange • Helps prevent against skin cancer • Most Americans get about 60% of what they need • Reduces aging of skin, risk of skin cancer, and fat oxidization ▯ Vitamin D: (15 MCG) • Egg yolk, fatty fish (has a little) – but being outside 15-30 minutes is much better. Milk not a great source • High vitamin D levels link to lower heart disease, less cancer, less chance of getting sick, strong bones • 95-98% are vitamin D deficient • Short half life – not toxic – body metabolizes very quickly • More of a hormone than a vitamin ▯ Vitamin E: (15 MG) • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) – vegetable oils, wheat germ* (best source), sunflower seeds, avocado, peanuts, shellfish, shrimp • Antioxidant • Old men see benefits right away because of increased blood flow – Viagra-like effect ▯ Vitamin K: (female 90 MCG; male 120 MCG) KIN202 Day 7 January 29, 2016   • Not an antioxidant • Needed for blood clots – without it you’d have bruises all over and bleed out from a cut • Helps with bone inflammation • Alcoholics without enough vitamin K bruise and bleed easily • Key to activate protein in our bones to connect bone cells – strong bones • Green stuff: Green leafy vegetables, brussel sprouts, cabbage (sulfur-rich), broccoli • Vitamin K and calcium go hand in hand (green leafy vegetables have both of them)


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