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Chemistry 111

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by: Tiana Molitor

Chemistry 111 CHEM 111 - 02

Tiana Molitor
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About this Document

Week 1 Notes 2-1-2016 -> 2-5-2016
General Chemistry I
Kristine Wammer
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiana Molitor on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 - 02 at University of St. Thomas taught by Kristine Wammer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of St. Thomas.


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So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future

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Date Created: 02/01/16
CHEM 111 Week 1 Notes 2-1-2016  Chemistry – study of matter and it’s properties and it’s changes that it undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes  Matter- anything that occupies space and has mass  Changes: physical vs. chemical o Physical- atoms are still attached in the same way  Ice -> water o Chemical – when substance is converted into another substance that CHANGES the composition/properties  Water -> hydrogen + oxygen (Electrical current) Scientific Method: Observation -> Hypothesis -> Experiment -> Theory -> Further Experiment 2-3-2016 Classifying Matter: Physical change or chemical composition  States of Matter: solid, liquid, gas o Solid – definite shape & volume, some vibration o Liquid – definite volume, no shape o Gas – no definite volume or shape ***SIDE NOTE: liquid to gas (boiling) takes more energy than solid to liquid!  Physical change – composition doesn’t change  Chemical change – composition of matter changes Carbon dioxide + water -> oxygen + carbohydrate CO2 + H2O -> O2 + C6H12O6 * Mass is conserved ( 80g ) -> ( 80g ) Energy: 1) Potential energy – products vs. reactants,,, energy = bonds 2) Kinetic energy – molecular speed *KNOW TABLES 1.1 & 1.2 SI units Mass: SI = kg/g Length: (m, cm, in, ft, mi) Volume: ( one length cubed) Ex) cm^3 1 L = 1 dm^3 , 1 mL = 1 cm ^3 Density: (mass/ volume) ,,, g/mL or kg/L -> Physical property Temperature K -> C T c = ( Tk x (1c/1k)) – 273.15c C -> F Tf = (Tc x (9f/5c)) +32f (no degree signs in the equations!) 2-5-2016 **Rules for Significant Figures 1) All non-zero digits are significant 2) Interior zeros are significant ex- 20.02 (4) 3) Trailing zeros w/ decimal are significant ex- 3.400 (4) 4) Leading zeros are not significant ex- 0.000430 (3) 5) Trailing zeros w/ no decimals should not be counted as significant **Multiple & Divide - use least amount of sig figs in the input **Addition & Subtraction - use least number of decimal places ex- 0.84 + 72 = 72.84 = 73 **Rounding 1) Never round while still working on a problem, round at the every end 2) Digit removed is over 5, round up 3) Digit removed is under 5, stay the same 4) Digit being taken off is 5 -> round up if odd, round down if even Precision- (reproducibility) refers to how close the measurements in a series are to each other Accuracy- refers to how close the measurement is to the actual value **2 types of error 1) Systematic error- produces values that are either all higher or all lower than the actual value. Usually caused by experimental system / faulty device. 2) Random Error- in absence of systematic error produces values that are higher and lower than actual value. Random error always happens but size depends on the measurer’s skill and the instrument’s precision.


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