GY 101 wk 2
GY 101 wk 2 GY 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elle Notetaker on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Eben Broadbent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Processes & Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
How geographers see the world Notes from Jan 29, 2016 Gy 101 Broadbent Maps let you understand things you see everyday in a new way. Show mountains, streets, rivers, etc. You can layer different pictures/maps to understand things. Ex: the moon is about as wide as the United States. 2158 mi. See numbers, movement (temporal movement patterns, ocean currents, cultural trends we have issues with putting a 3D world onto a 2D map. You have to decide what information to keep accurate, because you can’t keep everything happy. Parallels and Meridians: Parallels: concentric circles parallel to each other each is the same distance from each other/poles meridians pole to pole, not parallel, converge at poles. great/small circles great made by plane going through center of a sphere. ex, equator small circle made by a plane that isn’t through the center of a sphere. ex. the 50th degree parallel. Latitude: angle from the equator. take the equator, the center of the earth, and the spot in question. tells you how far north or south a place is. The center of the earth is the vertex of the angle. 0 degrees at the equator and 90 at the N pole negative in the southern hemisphere longitude angle from the prime meridian (greenwich, england). tells you how far east or west a place is. 0 degrees at the prime meridian, increases to east and west 180 degrees at or near the international date line. (Painful) Musical Interlude at this point in the class, there was a very painful video about latitude and longitude. Apparently you need the proper attitude. Latitude = ladder rungs go sideways. Oh, and the teacher will evidently show you gratitude if you learn longitude and latitude. I don’t know why you have to look both ways, though. Map Projections ways to represent a sphere as a flat map like shining a light through a globe, and it shines onto a wall. There will be distortion, though. You can preserve shapes or area, but not both at the same time. Sinusoidal an attempt to preserve both shape and area. Cylindrical wrap a paper around the globe and put the light in the middle. Conical wrap a cone around the globe, more accurate where the paper would touch the cone. Can only show 1 hemisphere. planar hold a paper above the globe and shift everything up. Can only show 1 hemisphere. Map scales: ratio of distance on the map to the same distance on a ground= representative fraction. small representative fraction = small scale map large rep. fraction = large scale map GPS: global positioning system determine location using satellite signals. A bunch of satellites orbit the earth sending out time codes. GPS gives time when it gets a signal, and GPS triangulates your position. GIS: Geographic information systems: different information represented as data ‘layers.’ Spatial Problem Solving: analyze spatial distributions and their implications. Clustered, regular, and random. helps you get data for places you haven’t gathered data with spatial averaging. Why does the sun rise and set? Why is the sky blue in day but orange at sunset? WHy is it warmer in tropics or most deserts than in midlatitudes. Why is air humid in tropics, but dry in typical deserts? Where does the energy for storms come from? Atmosphere: troposphere: clouds, mountains, weather, earth’s surface, and us. stratosphere: ozone layer, becomes warmer upward mesosphere: site of most shooting stars, becomes very cold upward thermosphere: where auroras originate Atmosphere, weather, and climate Atmosphere mixture of gas molecules, small suspended particles of solid and liquid, and falling precipitation. Meteorology study of the atmosphere and the processes that cause what we call ‘weather’ weather shortterm phenomena climatelong term patterns climatology long term study of the atmosphere and the processes we call ‘climate Thickness of atmosphere density decreases w height. top of the atmos. is undefined 99.99997…% within 60 miles (say, the distance to birmingham from tuscaloosa) of the surface. majority of atmos. mass is in a thin layer near the surface. still contains an impressive amount of mass. 5.65 billion million tons or the am/mass of water to fill a lake the size of california to a depth of 7.7 mi. would take 8 days by train to go down to the center of the earth. It would take 1 hour to get to the edge of the atmosphere. Atmospheric Composition: gases, suspended particles, and liquid/solid water. Gases & particles are readily exchanged between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere via physical and biological processes (volcanic) (photosynthesis, respiration). gases are categorized into Permanent and variable gases. Speed/force of movement in a map is shown with the length of an arrow Major Permanent Gases in the Atmosphere Name of gas Chemical Formula Percentage in the atmosphere Nitrogen N₂ 78.084% Oxygen O₂ 20.946% Argon Ar 0.934% Neon Ne 0.02% Helium He 0.0005% Krypton Kr 0.0001% Xenon Xe tiny bit Hydgrogen H₂ tiny bit homosphere less than 50 mi up. find lots of gases in same proportion. 99% of the atmosphere. stays relatively even because of wind, atmospheric processes, etc. heterosphere greater than 50 miles up. gases organized vertically according to molecular weight. lighter gases go up. Some Variable gases in the atmosphere: Water Vapor H₂O 0.25% Carbon Dioxide CO₂ 0.039% Ozone O₃ 0.01% These are the most important variable gases. (Oh, and water vapor means individual water molecules.) The song for the various musical spots during class was “You Found Me” by The Fray. There was a cultural map displaying the most listened to groups in different states. Some of them are listed here: Imagine Dragons, Daft Punk, Lorde(?), Macklemore & Ryan Lewis, Eminem, Jayz, Drake
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