Class Note for CHEM 490 at UMass(4)
Class Note for CHEM 490 at UMass(4)
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Chem 490A Biochemistry for Chemists Outline Ch 1 Mon 12609 Course overview Inanima re molecules 9 9 9 living organisms chemis rry biochemis rry biology Syllabus Schedule I Molecules of life s rruc rure amp mechanism pro rein focus How They coopera re in ne rworks amp nanomachines for II Harnessing energy Coupling ca ralysis III Selfreplication nucleic acid s rruc rure Cen rral dogma in more de rail DNA gt RNA gt pro rein IV Engineering molecules for medicine and bio rechnology Life is highly diverse bu r closer inspec rion reveals many common features a Mechanical example AG gt 0 AG lt 0 Work A 39 Loss of done rquot potential raising 339 energy of objectx a posmon I Endercionic Exeraonic I Coupling b Chemical example Reaction 2 ATP ADquot Pi Reaction 3 GlucoseiATP gt U glucose 6ltphosphate ADP 5 Reactionl 9 Glucose Pi gt 2 glucose 6phosphate a w a L Li A63 A61 A62 Reaction coordinate Lehninger PrinCIples of Biochemistry Free energy G Catalysis Activation barrier transition state 1 Reactants A A6 Products B Reaction coordinate A gt B Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry Life is highly diverse bu r closer39 inspec rion reveals many common fea rur39es39 Cells Molecules Reac rion ne rwor ks gt Evolu rion fr Berg Biochemistry Plum Animals Prokaryotes quotquot9 EUIIEarlylloltes 39 Hala vvles F quot U ICe U ar Unicellular w EUKARYA ARCHAEA 1MimoPlIlles 3 cells have nuclei organelles BACTERIA cyanunaneaa Halemlmpm 39 mm FIGURE 13 The Domains of Life on Earth McKee Biochemistry The Molecular Basis of Life Fl d 39 80533 Prokaryotlc cell Cytosol Plasmamembrane No nucleus or organelles Periplasmic space Cell wall ex Outer membrane Flagella 1 r m warm mom 3 Animal ell Rihosomes are prmein synthesixing machines rem Eu ka ryotic cell C t k l t t ll 11 m r333 223 f a39 Nucleus Ir 6 Lysasome degrades intracellular M a ny 0 399 a n e I les 939 Transport vesicle shuttles lipids and proteins between ER Golgi and plasma membrane Golgi complex processes packages and targets proteins to other organelles arforexpan Smooth enduplasmi rerieulum SERl is site or lipid synthesis and drug metabolism Nuzlaar envelope segregates elrromatin DNA protein Mlquotmegs Nurleuseontainsthe mm cytoplasm Rough endoplasmic reticulum genes chromatin RERl is site olmuch protein Plasma membrane separates cell 4 We Organelle membranebound subcellular compartment from environment regulates movement of materials into and ourolcell Mitochondrion oxidizesfuelslo Horton Principles of Biochemistry r produce ATP The players in biochemistry in all organisms Organisms 1m Level3 P lvnisra Amman The cell Supramolecular Macromolewles Monomeric units and its organelles complexes Plasma membrane mum inmpnmu Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry rawquot Horton Principles of Biochemistry quotWWW Chemical properties determine function DNA example 4 bases form 2 base pairs via H bonds A T amp G C Same sizeshape fit into double helix Sequence encodes information Unique base pairing makes copying possible Next time Noncovalent interactions eg H bonds Weaker than covalent interactions Makes assemblydisassemny possible in mild conditions eg for copying DNA Many together stabilize unique 3D structures eg DNA double helix Bacterial flagellum amp flagehllwar motor llagollar lilarnom flagellum outer membrane layer in peptidoglycan periplasmic space innor plasma membrane 5151 rotorquot Motor Rotates gt100 cycless reverses in 1ms Driven by Hinflux through stator ring of proteins Flagellum Assembled by protein export through central channel From Alberts et al Molecular Bioloqv of the Cell WC W9 Keiichi Namba Osaka University httpwwwfbsosaka uacjpIabs nambanpnindexhtm Protonic Nanomachine Project Keiichi Namba Osaka University Green Fluorescent Protein GFP Proteopedia httpwwwconncolleduccacadzimmerGFPwwGFP1htm 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry 3 who discovered amp developed GFP afProfes 7 I Roger YT51en University of California San Diego Engineering Molecules for Fun and Profit Merrill Sdence center Ledure Room 4 Amherst College 730 pm April 22 2008 Building Molecules to Spy on Synapses and Tumors Lederle Graduate Research Tuwer Roam IBSA University of Massachusetts Arnhem 1115 am April 22 2008 New Ways to Make Cells Show Us Secrets of Their Lives Cleveland Hall Room L1 in Holyoke College 415 pm httpwwwtsienlabucsdedu Spectral Frames of Commun Fluurescem Proteins Amorplmn mmquot mm mo E an an J x I 3 an so 2 an an httpwmmlcroscopyucomamclesl 2 2a 2a ivecellimagingfpintrohtml r a a 7 sn 400 45m 500 am am 45a son an sun ssn 1am wavelenglthanomexers Figures wavelenglthanomelers Brainbow From Roger Tsien s 2008 Nobel Prize speech While environmentally friendly or socalled quotgreenquot chemistry has become all the rage in the chemical community no human chemist can yet match what a single jellyfish gene directs 238 ordered condensations 1 cyclization 1 oxidation all done in a few minutes in aerated waterwith no protecting groups only one slightly toxic byproduct and essentially 100 yield of an extremely useful product that literally glows green
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