Human Sexuality Notes
Human Sexuality Notes
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Date Created: 03/09/14
Human Sexuality Female Physiology 1 2 7 8 9 IO 11 Vulva Exterior part of female anatomy covered in pubic hair The entire external genital area in a women Mons mons veneris Uppermost part piece of fatty tissue nerves that go to pleasure and sex centers of the brain Sexually sensitive A pad of fatty tissue covered by skin and pubic hair May serve as a cushion for the women s pubic area during sex Hair helps vaporize odors Labia majora major lips Outer lips covered with hair Not as sensitive as mons Pull back to expose underneathTwo folds of skin that extend down from the mons on either side of vulva Padded with fatty tissue and hairy on the surfaces nearest the thighs Labia minora Minor lips Hairless and more sensitive Increases in size fills with blood Two thin folds of hairless skin that lie between the labia majora Supplied with glands blood vessels and nerve endings Erotically sensitive Clitoral hood prepuce small piece of skin over top of clitoris Labia majora meet at front forming hood Clitoris with a glans and a shaft Clitoris is small pearl like structure underneath clitoral hood is he erectile organ in females whose external potion is located at the junction of the labia minora just in front of the vestibule 61 Glans will disappear under hood if woman really excited Shaft is mainly under skin like male penis but is smaller Can feel more obviously when women is sexually exited because engorged with blood Glans is exterior portion a small but sensitive knob of tissue positioned at the front of the vestibule Shaft runs upward from the glans under the hood Can be felt not seen 611 Clitoris is most sensitive erogenous zone on female body Its only certain function is sexual pleasure 612 Attention to clitoris should not overshadow importance for female love affection snuggling etc Vaginal opening or introitus entrance to vagina Hymen All different shapes Blood at first intercourse is not reliable as to whether women is a virgin or not Covers vaginal opening in newborns Rarely is imperforate covers entire opening Perineum The region of skin between the anus and the scrotum or vulva Erotically sensitive area between vaginal opening and anus Pelvic floor muscles A muscular sling that underlies and supports the pelvic organs The steady contraction of these muscles stiffens the walls of the vagina during sex thus increasing sexual sensations for both participants a PC Muscle running from pubic bone surrounding urethra vagina and anus attaching to coxic bone in back Contracts during orgasm Stops fecal material from leaking out Vagina Outermost portion of the female reproductive shaft Outer third is most sensmve 12 Grafenberg spot G spot An area of heightened sensitivity on the front wall of the vagina Not all women have a g spot and some sexologists question its existence a Controversial Area of tissue underneath vagina G spot can lead to ejaculation in some women 13 Cervix The opening the os The opening in the cervix the connects the vagina with the cervical canal a The very bottom end of the uterus Little hole called the os 14 Uterus with 3 parts being next or womb the inward continuation of the female reproductive tract beyond the vagina a hollow organ that lies within the pelvic cavity a Where menstruation occurs from 15 Endomentrium the inner layer Internal lining of uterus 16 Myometrim myo muscle The muscular layers of the wall of the uterus Push baby out at time of delivery 17 Perimetrium the tough outer layer The outer covering of the uterus going all the way around Very hard 18 Oviducts aka fallopian tubes Either of the two bilateral tubes that lead from the uterus toward the ovaries the usual site of fertilization 19 Cilia and fimbria Cllia are microscopic hairlike extensions of cells often capable of a coordinated beating motion wave in a coordinated fashion toward the uterus Push egg down the fillopian tube at rate of about one inch per day Four days for eggs to be moved all the way down a Fimbria are a fringelike set of extensions from the open end of an oviduct Lined with cillia that help propel ova down the oviducts i Finger like tips at ends of oviducts 20 2 Ovaries with follicles inside The organ that produces ova and secretes sex steroids Pairs of organs located on either side of uterus Size of unshelled almond a 2 functions 1 Release of mature ova 2 Production and secretion of sex hormones 21 Follicle a sac containing 1 egg An oocyte with its supporting cells within the ovary 22 Ova many eggs ovum 1 egg Ova is a mature female gamete prior to or immediately after fertilization 23 Breasts nipples areola Nipple in middle of areola Male Physiology Male Physiology 1 Penis The erectile exotically sensitive organ in males its functions include sexual pleasure delivery of semen and urination 2 Glans penis Glans head The terminal knob of the clitoris or penis 1 Acorn like structure at end of penis Very sexually sensitive like clitoris of women 3 Foreskin or prepuce The loose skin that partially or completely covers the glans in males who have not been circumcised 4 Smegma A whitish greasy secretion that builds up under the foreskin of the penis or the hood of the clitoris Worse in uncircumcised men Uncircumcised males more likely to contact HIV 5 Cavernous bodies corpora cavernosas Either of two elongated erectile structures within the penis or clitoris which also extend backward into the pelvic floor Two of them 6 Spongy body corpus spongiosum A single midline erectile structure In both sexes it fills the glans in males it extends backward along the underside of the penis surrounding he urethra Only one Softer Forms glands of penis Urethra and urethral opening Root of the penis with both crura and bulb Crura are little yellow finger like structures on public bone on cavernosas Bulb is on end of corpus spongiosum 9 Corona and frenulum Corona Makes a crown on penis Very sensitive area Frenulum is tiny piece of skin connecting both the shaft and glans of penis and is very sensitive 10 Muscles affecting the penis Muscle around coxic bone tail bone in the back 11 Scrotum The sack behind the penis that contains the testicles Range of testicle positions depending on weather or activity 12 Testes or testicles 2 of them Cannot directly view Dividers which separat the areas like an orange 13 Seminiferous tubules where sperm develop Convoluted microscopic tubes within the testicles the site of spermatogenesis the production of sperm 1 Fill up the lobe 14 Sperm hundreds of millions produced per day 15 Interstitial cells Leydig cells producing T Cells located between the seminiferous tubules in the testicles that secrete sex hormones 1 In the extra space Produce male androgens especially testosterone 16 Epididymis 2 of them on top of and behind the testes Sits on top of the testicle A long convoluted tube where the sperm come to mature for weeks Some will die and be reabsorbed by body other become ready for journey There is one on top of each testicle 17 Vas deferens 2 of them Either of the two bilateral ducts that convey sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct Epididymis empties into 1 Leads to urethra eventually Cut if male has a vasectomy doctors snip both of them Leads to males not having any sperm in their semen if they ejaculate 18 Ejaculatory Ducts 2 of them Bilateral ducts formed by the junction of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra within the prostrate 19 Prostate gland A single gland located at the base of the bladder that surrounds the urethra its secretions are a component of semen 1 Structure that the ejaculatory ducts run through 39 20 Seminal vesicles 2 of them Two glands situated to either side of the prostate their secretions are a component of semen 21 2 bulbourethral or Cowper s glands and pre cum Located at the base of the prostate Produces basic alkaline fluid that functions to neutralize the acid of urine in the urethra before ejaculation acid damages sperm 1 Can contain sperm from last ejaculation or wet dream that can cause pregnancy Need for cation when using condoms or withdrawal But the condoms on early 2 Precum can contain aids or stds 22 Semen term for the total ejaculate or the cum Two small glands near the root of the penis whose secretions pre cum may appear at the urethral opening during sexual arousal prior to ejaculation Also known as Cowper s glands 23 Breasts nipples areola Much more muscle mass because of testosterone Test covers materials in the boxes too Physiology of the Sexual Response is basically a reflex with an unconditioned stimulus touch to the genitals with appropriate level of pressure men like more women like less and leads to unconditioned response vaginal lubrication and penile erection leading to orgasm 2 physiological mechanisms that mediate the sex reflex 1 Vasocongestion Blood flowing into the genitals 2 Myotonia Inner muscle tension Muscle contractions every 8 seconds The Male Sexual Response Refractory period Man loses his excitement and can t get it back for typically 2030 minutes Refractory period is longer after the second ejaculation Sacar and lumbar of lower spinal cord where stimulation originates Genitals sends stimulus to spinal cord where reflex centers are located and response is allowing more blood to flow into the genitals creating vasocongestion Reflex stage 3 Male orgasm has 2 parts a Emission or ejaculatory inevitability lasting 23 seconds Fluids pumped into ejaculatory ducts and urethra b Ejaculation Muscle contractions every 8 seconds Resolution Last stage Penis hangs limply again In normal ejaculation sphincter muscles very important Wraps around tube Retrograde ejaculation Outer muscle closes down and inner opens up so ejaculation goes up into urinary bladder Sperm is killed Similarities of the male and female sex reflex Descriptions Female Pulses of pleasure and fireworks Male Waves of pleasure and blasting Both very similar hard to tell apart Could not reliably discriminate between the male and female descriptions In reality are the same Controlled by lower spinal cord 2 Sacral reflex Causes erection in males and lubrication in females Both caused by vasocongestion 3 Throasic and lumbar reflexes In men causes firmer erection and in women more lubrication Later in men emission and in women feelings prior to orgasm 4 Sacral reflexes causes contraction each 8 second 5 Pelvic congestive syndrome In men blue balls In women Tayor s syndrome Orgasm brings pelvic congestive syndrome to an end Not the opposite sex but the other sex PART 2 PSYCHOLOGY 1 Biology The behavior of simpler species is strongly influenced by biology 2 Social Learning Theory During human evolution increased brain cortex size led to increased learning capacity a Cortex part of the brain for learning memory thought b In humans learning can cover up almost all bio differences in male or female behavior 76 Masturbation Many kids discover masturbation by two years of age 1 They explore touching their bodies a natural act for babies 2 Touch to the genitals a biologically wired in pleasure primary enforcer 3 Leading to their repeating this type of touching 4 Multiple repetitions lead to iner chances of orgasm Punishment for masturbation comes from various sources Parents Accidental sources Mechanical devices to prevent Old view that masturbation lead to insanity Old mental hospitals in 1800s actually lead people to masturbate Today M is seen as normal and natural and usually healthy M is only bad if Done in such excess that a person ceases interaction with others and ceases learning normal social skills Masturbation to internet sex many hours a day is becoming increasingly common and can create problems Done repeatedly with fantasies of inappropriate sex ie sex with kids rape gt deviant turn ons Personal has a willing sexual partner but masturbates instead Females are slower to learn to masturbate Their genitals are smaller hence they are less likely to discover the pleasure of masturbate Females receive more punishment for masturbation than males do hence learn more inhibitions about doing it This deprive females of important learning about their sexuality Moms are three times more likely to discuss the morality of masturbation with daughters than with sons Childhood learning via curiosity observation and exploration Childhood sex is not based on complex adult motivations and sexual interpretations Most simple curiosity Hence don t read in homosexuality to same sex curiosity A girls interest in a boy s penis is NOT penis enw just simple curiosity Parents should create teachable moments Situations that will pique a child s curiosity gt natural motivation to ask question and learn le while bathing nude in bathroom changing clothes at the pool Don t just teach about sex Show partner interactions as affectionate loving and canng Adolescent Learning via experimentation peer G info books magazines videos etc and early sexual adventures Women are typically more emotional than males but not always Variability is normal and natural 3 Adolescence A Males During puberty sexual arousal begins earlier for boys Boys at age 1012 and girls 23 years later Sexual arousal occurs more often for boys Boys several rimes a day versus girls one time a week Sexual arousal is more intense and distracting for boys that for girls Boys can t ignore theirs but girls can More related to being in a romantic situationsrelationships for girls Sexual arousal comes at night as Nocturnal erections Often leading to masturbation Nocturnal orgasms wet dreams or nature s porn show Nocturnal orgasms are more common in boys than girls Among boys who have them have about 17x a year and if girls do is about 4x a year Most common sources of sexual arousal for heterosexual boys is nude females and for girls it is romantic books or movies Males get more visual turn ons than females especially if they masturbate to visual images Males are more visually oriented when it comes to sex 54 of males report getting sexually excited from nude pictures but only 12 of women For many young men sex is all pleasure and no costs Just do it Teen boys don t know what s happening during spontaneous erections nocturnal orgasms and masturbation Not learning to be nice or kind but learn just that sex is pleasurable And no one tells them not to pair these sexual excitements with thoughts of rape incest or pedophilia Hence boys can accidentally learn deviant sexual turn ons to rape incest pedophma Penis doesn t teach empathy social responsibility or concern for others though they can learn these at any age A college study Females tend to see friendly behavior but males tend to see more flirtation seductiveness and sexiness than women see This can lead to major misunderstandings men perceiving sexual invitations that the females did not intend Communication problems can lead to date rape Erotic kissing touching and dancing do not mean that they want sex Alcohol liquid courage Effects females two times more powerfully than it does males Date rape drugs are odorless and tasteless ie roofies rohyphnol Loose motor skills and sense of time may even get completely knocked out and cannot remember details the next day Cover your drink and don t put your drink down B Females Females often have fears and inhibitions about sex Worries about pregnancy and STD s Females twice as likely to contract STD than males And culture passes on caution messages to females even those who haven t had personal experience with pregnancy or STD s Females are worried about being labeled loose or a slut Sex anxieties based on prior incest rape or abuse C Coercion Sexual exploitation at time of first sex Males tend to be more exploitative Thus many want to have multiple partners and experiences 30 of young males feel it is OK to say I love you to get a female to have sex 46 of males first sexual experience was sex driven only 16 of females 10 of males said it was for love 42 females 6 of males planned to marry partner 22 of females planned to marry 1 males felt sorry after first sex and 19 of females felt sorry 20 of college males admit having used enough force to get sex that she cried fought screamed or pleaded not to have sex Research on Date Rapists DRs Males who have forced sex on female DRs use seductive techniques such as alcohol drugs lying bribery more than do nonrapists 93 of date rapists had used one of these methods Only 40 of NRs non rapists had In HS more date rapists felt peer pressure to get sex both in HS DR 85 vs NR 26 and 40 DR in college vs 9 NRs DRs have more peer experience with gang bangs fixed up sex and a female recommended by a friend DRs peers expect males to have more sex than most college males actually do leading DRs to be frustrated with their sex life 79 DRs frustrated vs only 32 NRs frustrated EVEN THOUGH they have about twice as much sex as the NRs 1 5x a week vs 8x a week 76 4045 of those who hook up have some really terrible experiences such as too much alcohol or drugs pressure to go further than they want assault or rape devastating disappointments Less hook ups on campus than people think 38 in 1988 said had had a one night stand upon first meeting and in 2007 it was just 26 People becoming more sexually conservative because of spreading information about AIDS and HIV 4 Exploring different positions A B and C etc rewarding experiences Genital stimulation and orgasm Partners pleasure If one partner is silent other becomes self conscious Novelty trying different positions like having sex in a rocking chair gt novel painful experiences Angt B gt C gt 5 Kinky Sex 5 steps to BampD Bondage and Discipline laying kinky games creates novelty a fun game a which rewards exploring step one and after novelty wears offstep 2and so on Pins down on bed Ties gently Ties tighter Slaps Hits 6 Adult Sex How often is normal As life goes on have less and less sex 1920 4x a week at max 40 s about 2x 60 s once every two weeks Studies show that people can have good sex into the 70s and 80s In most cases the decline is not bio age determined The decline can result from many causes Decreased novelty of sex Increasing competing responses kids ob commuting etcetera Its good to program in sex Increased negative associations with sex Marital dissatisfaction Good sex goes with good marriage The biggest reason for less sex then illness surgery psychiatric impairment etc Decline in general health Prevent by maintaining optimal body weight and to do strenuous cardio exercise Most common question Is it true that males peak sexually around age 20 and women around 3035 No It is a MYTH Males get to a higher level of sexual activity at a much younger age than females MIDTERM Pregnancy and Childbirth Million dollar child Women who never had children 1980 10 1998 19 Probably still going up because of the recession is early abortion murder 76 Pregnancy and Childbirth PID pelvic inflammatory disease Can lead to Ectopic pregnancy any pregnancy that is not in the normal place in the uterus ie fallopian tubes most common cervix ovary abdomen bowel Ectopic pregnancy is increasing Used to be 41000 live births Now is over 171000 Sexually transmitted diseases is the reason its going up Sterilization Types of Childbirth 1 Natural Childbirth Painful high risk of death for mother and infant 100 years ago 333 women died per 100000 births Today 10 women die per 100000 births 2 Full Anesthesia Didn t use for decades because of the clergy against what said in bible Problems Women can t help push baby out Anesthesia has medical risks to mother It depresses baby s bio system Less vigorous sucking less milk hence slower early growth and decreases ability to fight off diseases 3 Partial Anesthesia Spinal block Only using it for part of the body Problems similar to full but much less 4 Analgesia Mild drug Takes edge off of the pain Barbiturates tranquilizers Side effects are much reduced because is such a mild drug 5 Prepared Childbirth Dick Read Said give women an education about what happen Lamaze Said educate them about childbirth but teach them other things that will help them deal with the pain like going to classes etc Education learn about whats happening to body during pregnancy and labor so she knows whats going on Distraction from pain In movie focusing on strand of beads form home Focus on more positive alternatives to pain Breathing techniques Relaxation exercises to avoid tensing wrong muscles Father provides comfort love care and coaching Other variations of Lamaze like water births Bradley method Stressed natural birth Places much weight on woman s partner as birth coach Less likely to accept anesthesia or other medical interventions during labor than women who take lamaze classes 6 Leboyer Wanted baby to be come out not crying Tried by putting babies into warm water darker lights and nice music 7 Cesarian Birth C Section Done more commonly than most people would ever guess Doctors surgically opens the abdomen surgically cuts into uterus and cuts the baby out 3 76 STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases used to be called VD STI Infections Even if no disease symptoms are present Knowing about STDs can help you avoid expensive therapies sterilization ectopic pregnancies and much grief Females are 2x greater risk of arm from STs than males 8 of sexually active people had a STD in their lifetime 10 of women and 4 of men Chlamydia Chlamydia is NOT common at UCSB though it is common in USA with 35 million new cases per year 2 of sexually active UCSB students have had it 4 of females and less than 1 of males It is 70 asymptomatic But it can cause PID and ectopic pregnancy later or sterilization Chlamydia moves up into the reproductive organs Symptoms Itching or pain burning on urination discharge Complication Male Prostatitis epididymitis sterility Women Cervictitis infection of cervix PID pelvic inflammatory disease sterility cause scar tissue to develop in fallopian tubes resulting in sterility Much more likely in females than males Can be treated successfully with drugs 34 Months after first treatment ends people should be tested again Sexually active females should be tested every year up to the age of 24 and then at the doctor s discretion after 24 CDC Guidelines Danger to the newborn Eye infections and pneumonia if the mother is infected Can cause more damage in eyes of infants than adults but it can cause eye infections at any age Both can be treated with appropriate medications Pregnant women should be tested for chlamydia Genital Warts In the USA 40 million people are infected 3 of sexually active UCSB people have had them 4 of females and 2 of males Caused by a virus HPV similar to but not the same as warts on the hand There are over 100 strains of HPV 30 gt genital warts A few gt cervical cancer Pap smears can find 13 of genital warts are precancerous in females although cervical cancer is rather easily cured Can be found by pap smears 70 of college peoples have HPV or antibodies to it showing that they have had it Many did not know they had it Anal cancer is becoming more common due to HPV People can be tested for anal cancen At least 70 of throat cancers are caused by HPV 16 And oral sex with multiple partners increases the chances Genital warts First outbreak 6 weeks to 8 months after infection Average 3 months But it can be latent for years no symptoms yes are still contagious to other people The body fights of HPV in 618 months usually 612 months 1 HPV makes way through cells in skin into cells which lie underneath skin 2 HPV infects immature skin cells and slowly replicates as cells are getting older and moving up 3 Dead skin cells with virus are sloughed off infecting healthy cells Other way HPV comes into skin and forms infection creates colony of HPV cells colons spreads out underneath the skin and then warts will pop up Genital warts Go away spontaneously in 20 of people Are controlled by medical doctors in 60 of people Are very difficult to control in 20 of people causing much grief and sometimes expense A person may have persistent HPV and be contagious even if the warts are in remission and no sores are visible After 6 months check up and no more warts you probably are NOT spreading the disease is probably either gone or it soon will be But probably is not certainty If young and healthy you probably don t have to worry about it Now a vaccine against HPV gives nearly 100 protection and 2 strains that work against cervical cancer Gardasil 100 free for females and males with UCSHIP student health insurance Vaccine given to girls 925 years old best when given before sexually ac ve Pearly penile palupas is not an STD Genital Herpes In USA i million new cases per year 1 of sexually active UCSB students have had it 1 of females and 1 of males Herpes 1 and 2 Herpes 1 Cod sores 70 in mouth 30 on genitals Easier to spread from mouth to mouth than from mouth to genitals Canker sores are different They are ulceration of mouth or lips Herpes 2 Mostly in the genitals but can be found in the mouth too Sores can be very small and hard to notice In USA 17 of people 1749 years have Herpes 2 HSV2 Herpes outbreaks cycles Measured in years Average of 58 outbreaks in first year Triggers for outbreaks sunburns stress certain foods etcetera Herpes can be transmitted even when people have no symptoms Most common time to release virus is right before the new outbreak May tell by burning or stinging in area where outbreaks may occur No cure for herpes at the present However the drug acyclovir helps Oral acylovir 1x per day helps 68 of people avoid outbreaks Number of herpes outbreaks per year 16 for people taking valacyclovir every day 73 for people taking it only after having outbreaks To avoid passing herpes to the baby at time of birth and risking baby s health medical doctors may do a c section People who think they can do little to control herpes have more frequent and more negative recurrences Think POSITIVELY Herpes can get in the eye Hepatitis B Can be spread vis sex Vaccine is three shots to protect you Hepatitis A 2 shots to protect you From feces if you do oral ana sex or eat foods prepared by infected people with poor bathroom hygiene Gonorrhea Men notice symptoms but many women don t 80 of females have no symptoms but most men have symptoms Thus he should tell his partners if he gets gonorrhea is reaching a stage in its evolution where some strain cannot be cured with the current treatment Have to have drug injected instead of pill and have to have 4 times the regular dosage There are no new antibiotics coming out which are different from the ones that it is forming resistance too When it becomes completely resistant not sure what going to do How to decrease risk of STDs Condoms help although are not perfect Do not use condoms with n9 antispermicide helps kill sperm but it also deteriorates the latex Brings down effectiveness of the condom Biggest cause of STDs is sometimes said to be Alcohol May not remember to use condom Decrease risk of STDs via dry sex don t exchange bodily fluids Use manual stimulation body rubbing etc Non virgins can abstain from sex until you are sure of new partners Sexually active gays and bisexuals should be tested for HIV Gonorrhea Chlamydia Syphilis at least once a year AND vaccinated for hepatitis A and B Don t douche unless an MD says you should because it increases your risk of getting bacterial vaginosis PID HIV AIDS etc Changes vaginal environment and makes it more susceptible AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome It takes about 10 years usually 811 for HIV to cause AIDS 14 of people with HIV don t know they have HIV PWAperson with AIDS Is much gentler than victim or patient 25 of PWA s contracted HIV before age 20 Being young doesn t protect you people like us gt people with HIVAIDS New medications Protease inhibitors combined with AZT and 3TC etc which reduce most people s AIDS symptoms Some reduce it so far that HIV cannot be detected in bloodstream anymore but does not mean that it is gone Still can transmit the disease 1 HIV enters the cell 2 AZT and 3TC disrupts an early stage of the virus reproduction 3 Protease inhibitors block the final stage o f reproduction 4 As a result no additional virus is produced The drugs for AIDS often have serious side effects People with HIV can live 24 years with the new drugs at a cost of about 600000 AIDS cannot be cured In SF today 13 of the gay and bisexual men are HIV positive The of new HIV cases per year has gone up 20 in the recent years From 40000 in the early 2000s to 48000 today A big HIV target is black women High risk people of UCSB are 5 of the non virgins because they average 4 or more vaginal partners per year Very high risk people 2 of the currently sexually active people had 4 or more vaginal partners in the last 3 months Many students are exposed to these high risk people without knowing it 50 of all cases of STDs are caused by 5 of the people 4 partnersyear a serious risk to self and others When you sleep with a person it s as if you sleep with all of their prior partners because any of the partners could have infected the partner 76 The number of partners I had 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 and number of unknown people 0 1 5 20 64 257 920 3368 13554 UCSB and AIDS random sample Many people are taking no precautions For vaginal sex only 32 use condoms 100 of the time 53 is the average condom use in the last three months For anal sex only 26 use condoms 100 of the time 28 is the average condom use in the last 3 months 22 of non virgins have had anal female and 23 of males Females had 14 partners and males 17 Anal sex anal sphincter around anal hole Keeps shit inside body When penis pushes on anus the anal sphincter gets tighter making it harder for the penis to get in Tight fits lead to small tears in the anus each small tear is like a superhighway for viruses ie HIV to enter the body Anal sex is especially risky since the rectal wall is very thin compared to the vaginal wall much easier to tear and damage damagetears may be microscopic but is still there Sex risks for transmitting STDs Lowest is oral sex then vaginal and then anal Average condom use for anal sex for heterosexuals in past 3 months is 28 Average condom use for anal sex in gays in past 3 months is 72 It is wise to abstain from anal sex if you can Use condoms and lots of lubrication if you can t And go slowly Anal sex without a condom is very very risky and use fresh condoms before entering any other orifice Femoral sex used to be more common than anal sex in Abe Lincoln s day and Alfred Kinsey s time and its safer too Rub penis in between the legs but reducing exchange of bodily fluids Oral sex can transmit HIV especially if there are sores in the mouth STDs cold sores bleeding gums you ve bit your cheek or lip Dental dams for oral sex with a female Where to get tested UCSB student health center and IV open door clinic There is a home test Emergency help if exposed to HIV see MD ASAP and ask for PEP Begin the pills ASAP to decrease your risk of HIV infection by 80 Call Hotline 1888448491 1 In this era it is ok if not imperative to talk with your partner about STDs 20 of males and 4 of females would lie about HIV test 47 of males and 42 of females would understate number of prior partners 34 of men and 10 of women have lied in order to have sex 38 of males have lied about ejaculatory control or likelihood of pregnancy and 14 of women about likelihood of pregnancy 21 of females and 20 of males have been sexually unfaithful 40 of UCSB sexually active people wait one month or more before starting sex and only 4 know this Males are more likely to give HIV to females than females are to give it to male Thus it is wise for females to demand safer sex Gender roles All those behaviors besides sexual behaviors that make males and females different Difference in ways males and females sit and carry books legs crossed for females or uncrossed for males books at side for men or at chest for women Old view Male and female were two discrete categories New view M F Androgynous People who are not either extreme Androgyny having both masculine and feminine interests and behaviors The truth is a great mind must be androgynous Samuel Coleridge 13 of college students are androgynous An experiment First People are tested to see if traditional or androgynous and then paired as TT or AA Traditional were quite distant in interests and communication styles and do not coordinate well Androgynous are closer in interests and communication styles finding it easy and rewarding to interact and share UCLA Study How heterosexual people perceived their partners as feminine and masculine scales Males are perceived as more androgynous than females Men are feared of being perceived as self centered insensitive machines Females feared of deviating from the female stereotypefeared of being too assertive and competent Though this is not true of everyone bell shaped curve 76 Rape Presentation 1 in 5 men will be the victim of rape or attempted rape in their lifetime 13 of rapes and attempted rape are reported to the police 80 committed by someone the person knows MYTHS about rape Rapes are committed by strangers It could never happen to me No doesn t always me know Silence does not mean consent Women are asking for it by the way they are dressing or the way they act Women cannot rape Assumption that women are weak and can t do it In reality they can Can rape both men or women is less common but do exist and should be acknowledged Men cannot be raped Men can and are raped In California you must be over 18 to consent to sex Consent must be verbalized It is always important to receive and enthusiastic yes Alcohol can lead to riskier sexual behavior and creates a gray area Communicate If too drunk to consent then person cannot legally consent to sex What to do Believe and listen to the survivor Tell them it is not their fault Important that they seek medical care Don t have to go to police but is very important to seek medical care Be patient with them Be there for them Do not tell them what they should do 76 M and W become more androgynous as they get older There are biological influences to differences le prenatal testosterone affects the cns leading boys to be rowdier than girls T effects are noticeable by age 2 Masculinizes the brain Society creates a strong pressure for kids to learn the traditional gender roles starting at birth 1 Parents Major influence on socialization They know gender stereotypes Girls fragile and mild mannered Boys strong and hearty Scientific observations show no behavior differences in baby girls and baby boys non including circumcised boys Yet parents read in the stereotypes and also treat girls and boys differently Shelter the girl roughhouse the boy From birth parents track girls and boys on different tracks fostering dependency for girls and independence for boys Bias we start children out with in the beginning of their lives 25 year old boys show increased preferences for rowdy behavior and fathers tend to reward sons for rowdy behavior Boys and girls gradually pull away from each other While boys get increasingly rowdy girls get increasingly social and verbal Parents give girls and boys different rooms clothing toys etc therefore fostering different behavior Girls are trained to talk and think more about their emotions than boys especially sad emotions Boys are NOT taught to talk or think much about their emotions especially fear Parents are role models for different gender roles and kids imitate Many males are raised to want to save the world or to make some great contribution These different gender roles can take males and females in very different direction in ifeater impeding close malefemale relationships 2 Teachers Teachers like girls more because girls behave correctly in school environment Sitting quietly being verbal and teachers reward girls for these behaviors Boys have many problems adjusting to school Hurt by lower verbal skills etc Higher aggressive rowdy impulsive and ADD behavior Boys fall behind in verbal and social skills Girls fall behind in athletic physical and math skills 3 Mass Media Kids spend 46 hours a day watching TV TV often presents distorted views of sex and gender roles A lot of men showing violence Female socialization has emphasis on sex and being a cute young female Study 1 Comparing heavy viewer kids with light viewer kidsheavy viewers had more stereotyped views of male and female behavior Study 2 Arranged so half people in town got standard cable TV advertisements Other half got ads with men and women in non stereotypical gender roles When kids are allowed to watch commercials with women in non stereotyped roles kids develop less stereotyped views of male and female behavior 4 Society in general Has many examples of males in roles of power and control and females in support roles Males and females are segregating themselves into occupations that have different kinds of paychecks 5 Peer Group By age 1011 peers are being socialized boys and girls quite differently Boys socialized by boys and girls by girls About a tenth of girls are tomboys At 10 years males and females are very far apart Most at 1011 years old spend most of their time with the same sex learning little about the other sex s behaviors and interests Title IX passed in 1972 increased female in sports But males love it more More females have dropped out by college than males 6 Teens Males and females mix more leading to increasing androgyny Begin to want to please the others and do behaviors that the other gender does Love very powerful Sometimes called puppy love Men who are not as androgynized care about scoring Females are superficial to them Females who are not as androgynized are fearful Guys only want one thing Makes daughter very fearful of males 7 Marriage After baby comes men in all male groups talk about male topics like taxes and sports teams Women in all female groups often talk about kids like best school and pediatricians Kids usually pull people into very traditional gender roles After kids leave home chance to get back to more androgynous behaviors again Gender roles are largely learned and can be changed at any age The more you interact with the other sex the more you learn their interests and behaviors gtleads togt closer relationships 7 Preface to Sex Therapy Partners learn sexual turn ons via Pavlovian conditioning aka classical or respondent conditioning Ex of CS s images of nude bodies being touched as in erotic play words associated with sex etc Stimuli present 1 While masturbating or 2 During coitus become CS s or sexua turn ons that can arouse sexual feelingsurges The more sex related stimuli that a person pairs with masturbation or coitus the more turnons the person will develop Different socializations lead to different numbers of sexual turnons Males typically get more CS s for sex that females do although that is changing Do males and females turn on to the same things Study 1 Physiological measures An experiment Females and males listen to one of four different types of tapes of malefemale interactions a erotic b erotic and romantic c romantic d no sex no romance the control G Erotic and eroticromantic both had high turn ons for females and males Romantic and control G were both low turn ons for both males and females Among those people who were sexually aroused 0 of the men did not notice their erection goes from 36 inches Of females 42 did not feel any sexual arousal 63 didn t feel vaginal lubrication Females can get excited and not notice it because the female response is so much more subtle than the male response The changes in the female body are relatively tiny in comparison to men penile erection Females can be sexually aroused and not be aware of it whereas men are usually aware when they become sexually aroused Put female at disadvantage Study 2 on male and female biological responses to videos of Heterosexual sex Gay male sex Lesbian sex Nude male exercising Nude female exercising Heterosexual males turned on by heterosexual sex lesbian sex and female exercising Gay males turned on by gay sex and male exercising They were aware of what turned them on The males got biologically turned on to most stimuli though often not aware of which Heterosexual females Turned on high level by heterosexual sex gay male sex lesbian sex and medium turn on to male and female exercising Lesbian women turned on by lesbian sex high level and medium for female exercising Heterosexual females were only aware of being aroused during heterosexual sex Lesbian females only aware of being aroused during lesbian sex and thought aroused highly by female exercising when it was only medium lower level than they thought Females are less aware that males about what turns them on study 2 and when they are turned on study 1 Turn offs any stimulus that arouses guilt anxiety depression or other negative emotions that turn off the sexual reflex Can stop the turn on from eliciting the sexual reflex Sexual Therapy and Enrichment Sex techniques Sex problems in 100 happy couples 40 of males had some problems 63 of females had some problems At UCSB occasionally or more often Females Little lubrication 25 hard to orgasm 49 no orgasm 61 lack of interest 31 painful intercourse 26 Men no orgasm 14 lack of interest 22 painful intercourse 8 hard to stay erect 11 ejaculate too quickly 37 Therapy and enrichment Increase the positive turn ons for sex Decrease the negative turnoffs of fear guilt shame etc 5 ways to increase the turn ons for sex 1 Sensate focus Learning how to enjoy being touched and caressed 2 Pleasuring Learning how to touch your partner in ways that feel most pleasurable Start by touching in non genita areas breasts and genitals are offlimits 3 Advance in small steps starting with nonsexual pleasure and moving toward the goal of full sexual interaction Move on to genital touching but not coitus And not doing it to get sexually aroused but to just enjoy Next step might be that you do this to get sexually aroused 4 Therapists serve as models of sensitive communication How to talk about sex and interpersonal needs in a gentle considerate manner 5 Encouragement a Sex therapy has a high success rate which is encouraging to hear about b People see their own progress each day as they advance through therapy Reduce the negativity in 2 ways 1 Stop spectating stop being a spectator of your own sexual responseall that thinking is distracting Give your mind a rest Allow your partner to give you your favorite stimulation and the reflex will operate nicely 2 Avoid performance anxiety Stop worrying about our ability to achieve some sexual goal There is no goal Just try lots of different things see which ones feel good Learn from your successes AND from your failures Relax explore have fun and learn what feels good 76 Sexual problems are natural and common 50 of people will have a major sex problem at least once in life 13 of these could be resolved by having accurate sex info We are much less likely to have sex problems after being informedtaking this class Examples of Sex Therapy useful for UCSB students Males Premature Ejaculation 37 of males at UCSB ejaculate too quickly occasionally or more often 2 definitions Kaplan s PE exists when a male ejaculates too fast and does not have voluntary control over the timing of ejaculation 12 minutes Sex is a stimulusresponse reflex Increasing the speed of stimulus input will increase the speed of the response which can cause the premature ejaculate PE is natural especially if is young and only had sex a few times Hasn t had sex for a long time Therapies 1 The squeeze technique Masters and Johnson Putting pressure on the penis right where the glans is Can slow male down The squeeze tease technique starts with manual stimulation of the penis Males learn what its like to be sexually excited for a longer period of time Can also apply the squeeze at the base of the penis The squeeze slows down the males response and increases the time he can have an erection and have sex without ejaculating Can have increased time to learn internal bodily feelings and learn voluntary control over rate of input to the SR reflex Therapy takes place in a series of steps 1 Manual stimulation 2 Female on top position 3 Side by side position 4 Male on top position hardest position for male to control his sexual arousal in because is most exciting Can t have this position until has controlled ejaculation in other positions Love a key part of good sex Helps increase positive feelings communication and motivation to cooperate 2 The stopstart technique Bernie Zilbergeld Start and stop stimulating the male Simpler than the squeeze tease Stop Focus on giving pleasure to your partner Start Focus on giving pleasure to yourself Some males can stop start quickly Others have strong habits for fast intense sex and need practice to overcome old habits Good voluntary control allows males to try some of the advances male positive turn ons such as finger pressure on the perineum Zilberged s therapy A The male practices alone to gain voluntary control over ejaculatory timing 1 Masturbates by himself using stop start method Goes to orgasm after 15 minutes Done 34 times a week 2 Same as step one except male uses KY jelly on penis KY makes masturbation feel more like penis in vagina 3 Masturbation with subtle adjustments Not stop start Male learns which levels of pressure tightness of PC muscle positions etc are more or less exciting Helps him learn voluntary control of excitement 4 Masturbate with vivid sexual fantasies and stop start Not subtle adjustments which is a harder step 5 Masturbate with vivid sex fantasies and subtle adjustments 6 Have a quickie Provides a contrast that helps him learn what he was doing wrong in the old days Helps him gain a clearer understanding about the good new habits he has just learned B Try with partner Do sex in slow motion You will notice more and slow yourself down Myths PN sex is the best sex This limits the male If cannot have an erection he is a failure In fact there are many other ways to make love Touching cuddling talking being gentle manual or oral stimulation body rubbing etc Non Therapies Common sense methods for dealing with PE a None trail voluntary ejaculatory control b They merely use gimmicks to avoid the problem instead of solving it Avoidance retards learning He may never learn voluntary ejaculatory control 1 Less foreplay for the male and more foreplay for the female BAD 2 Go ahead and have the first PE After the refractory period he can make love again and the reflex will work slower with less chance of PE 3 Distraction Think about anything other than pleasures of sex DOES NOT WORK 4 Use a condomor two 5 Empty the bladder before sex BAD 6 Have 23 drinks before making love Relaxes you Alcohol causes erection to decrease and relaxation to increase Shakespeare t provokes the desire but takes away the performance Macbeth 7 Use an anesthesia on the penis stay cream sta hard 8 Grow old ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE BAD DO NOT WORK Male anxiety Can lead to a loss of erection Worry about Loss of erection When putting on condoms Finding the vagina Ask her to do it for you Can become part of erotic play The female should ask the male what he likes and how he likes it Performance anxiety is a sexual turn off Hypo versus hyper sexual desires and their therapies BE AWARE Hypo Low sexual desire Hyper High sexual desire FEMALE PROBLEMS How often orgasm Men MUCH more than women at UCSB 51 males 81 100 of the time and 12 of females Males and females are having very different experiences in the bedroom Hard to get orgasm Female orgasmic problems result from Lack of knowledge or skill by the male or female in bringing effective stimulation to the female Presence of fear anxiety guilt or other negative emotions that inhibit either people from doing sexually stimulating things andor suppress the sexual reflex Both of these causes result form a long history of ignorance about female sexuality Historically women were expected to play the good wife and maternal roles A woman tolerated her husband s sexual urges but was not expected to be sexual herself For centuries if a woman had orgasms she might be burned at the stake as a witch Thought to be having sex with the devil Even today part of the double standard if for females to be sexy more than sexual Kinsey s book about female in 1953 shocked the nation such as 14 of females had experienced multiple orgasms Bergler and Kroger wrote a book in 1954 Kinsey s Myth of Female Sexuality Nymphomaniacs Term does not actually exist Masters and Johnson in 1960s all women have the POTENTIAL for multiple orgasms New problem for women Pressure to perform gt performance anxiety Fake orgasms Not rare Therapy and enrichment for female orgasmic problems 1 Masters and Johnson format Training position man leans against bed and women leans in front of him so he can reach around and stimulate her Stimulate clitoral area while engaging in coitus Most females need additional stimulation for orgasm Experiment with different positions 2 Selfhelp methods for females with out partners no time for intensive therapy andor no money for intensive therapy Can read a book and can be just as effective Don t need to go to therapist necessarily Selfhelp methods a Masturbation Takes a while to learn how to masturbate Learning what feels good and what doesn t Learning what leads to sexual arousal and orgasm Developing erotic turnons and fantasies Who has PN orgasms 19 of females who do NOT masturbate and 36 of females who DO masturbate Women learn something through masturbation that makes it easier for them to have masturbation through just coitus You do not HAVE to masturbate to have a good sex life UCSB females males several a month and females once a month majority 7 easy nonthreatening steps to learn selfpleasuring for women Look at her own body in private and get comfortable with it Feel her body all over Touch parts that feel arousing Try to get sexually aroused Extended masturbation Orgasms triggers tightening legs thighs tighten contract PC muscle may end up contracting everything in the area head over side of bed water stimulation Male watches her masturbate partner after weeks of going through earlier steps Male can see what the female does and can see what she likes Male imitates during sex or can do hand on hand guidance to show him what you like him to do if not want him to watch in earlier step b She and her partner can exploreexperiment i Different patterns of clitoral stimulation circular up and down bath and forth ii Different levels of pressure gentle stronger esp as closer to orgasm pulsing iii The three finger technique Smallest and weakest three fingers of the hand Thumb and pointer finger often too strong Can also try one or two fingers Stimulate the frenulum which is very sensitive erotically This is area where minor lips join with glans of clitoris iv Oral stimulation Tongue is moist and not too strong Of 152a 30 of females and 16 of males enjoy sex play more than intercourse It is important don t ignore it c Vibrators Women can have 2050 orgasms with a vibrator versus 35 orgasms via manual stimulation Pros and Cons Pros 1 Easy way to have first orgasm Helps her learn what feels good and when she is nearing orgasm 2 Men and women may be able to integrate the vibrator as part of their love making and both enjoy it Some men like it Cons 1 Some females lose their ability to fantasize since vibrator gives such easy stimulation 2 Some women get hooked on the vibrator get dependent on it and cannot orgasm without it 3 Vibrator can cause problems in relationship men may feel jealous of it may blame her for not being able to orgasm with him without the vibrator 4 Excess use of vibrator can lead to tactile anesthesia of the genitals a temporary loss of sensitivity d e and f apply to both males and females d Increase effective muscle stimulation by i Kegel exercises Urinate try to stop fluid midstream Contracts pubococcygeus muscle Gain more control Strengthen muscle for 15 minutesday in 3 periods of 5 minutes each ii Put pressure on the PC during love making without neglecting the clitoris iii Increase general body muscle tension more vigorous foreplay more vigorous sex acts Play lions and tigers Make animal noises Be playful e Fantasy Increase the positive turnons for sex Distracts her from negative thoughts Fantasy is not the same as reality A person need not feel guilty a bout having a fantasy that would never be acted out Number one fantasy for both males and females female taking charge and initiating exciting sexual activities You can try living out this fantasy f Increase positive internal monologue The internal monologue the words we hear in our heads as we talk with ourselves Can be positive or negative words Females often have negative internal monologues while making love Thinking negative thoughts like Worry guilt fears about not having orgasm fears of not pleasing partner fears that their body is not sexy enough etc Goal Decrease negative thoughts increase positive thoughtswhich come from partner books women s rap groups sexuality workshops But the very best thing is from her partner Summary on women about orgasm Many women feel inhibited about sexuality These inhibitions limit their sexualexpenence During pv sex females get indirectsimulation not getting enough stimulation No wonder many find it hard to orgasm If men relied on indirect stimulation many would have not be able to orgasm Dr Fisher study 64 of women prefer clitoral stimulation vs 36 preferring vaginal stimulation Kinsey 84 of women stimulate the clitoris while masturbating and only 20 stimulate the vagina Females less likely to orgasm from coitus compared to cunnilingus partner stimulation and self stimulation 40 of married women have orgasm nearly every time and 68 of lesbians Hite found that women who have orgasms regularly learn how to do it themselves take an active role in love making move in way s that provide them with the best stimulation Only about 30 of females easily reach orgasm by pv sex alone Women have a right to ask for more than pv sex alone For females especially distractions are more distracting which reduces their sexual excitement gt so stay focused on sexual feelings as in sensate focus Good communication is essential STUDY of women who report having good or very good sex lives Those who discuss their sexual feelings with their partner Always 88 Often 80 Occasionally 58 Never 30 Erection lubrication and orgasm result from stimulation to the glans shaft and frenulum the US for the sex reflex another malefemale similarity Must communicate your needs Hard to get excited Hard to stay excited 76 3 Rules for her partner Find out what she likes Give her what she likes For as long or short as she likes Oral Sex In 152 A 79 of females approve of it 96 of males approve of it How often Females zero 54 04x 22 0 Males 59 o 04X 1300 0 Oral sex is best way for women to orgasm Oral Sex Manners 1 Man should not push his partners head down Forcing anyone to do sex can lead to charges of sexual assault When receiving fellatio do not thrust into your partners mouth When doing cunnilingus it s all about tongue work Do not bite 2 Talk about oral sex before you do it a What are your values What words come up natura dirty everyone does it for femalemale only etcetera If you think oral sex is dirty you should not be asking your partner to do it to you If you don t want to do it to them can t ask them to do it to you Oral sex can be stepping stone to pv sex But some see it as more intimate and won t do it until later in love b There are STI risks Have you taken precautions Gotten tested Bought condomsdental dams 3 Be sensitive to questions of taste and odor a I ejaculation in the mouth is aversive place mouth to the side Give a warning before you ejaculate b If taste in mouth is aversive try a glass of water mint tic tac life saver flavored sex lubricants etc Flavored condoms solve the problem of spit or swallow c Don t say I won t kiss you after you ve done THAT lt s very insulting Part III of Course Birth Control and Abortion 1 Birth control or contraception Each year you have a 90 chance of pregnancy if you do not use birth control At UCSB Have you ever been pregnant Or pregnancy scare Females 11 Males 9 Abstinence Useful at any age No need for BC no risk of pregnancy no risk of STDs yet allows you to be in love It is easy to say no or don t know each other well enough or religion doesn t permit it People who are sexually active need to be in control of your body and life Ideally you can begin birth control with your parent s approval Even if your parents wouldn t want you to be sexually active they d want you to be safe 12 of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended which 3 million a year There is a national computer system which is now used to track down deadbeat dads so they pay child support for their kids In NYC and Chicago 60 of HS students were sexually active 10 had 3 or more partners in the past 6 months In NYC but not chicago gave condoms and education therefore there was an increased birth control use and not an increase in sex acts So giving access to condoms and education did not increase their sexual activity but did increase their sexual safety and protection Emergency Birth Control Works up to five days after unprotected sex 1 a Ella Equally effective all five days Need prescription b Pan B Less effective each day Over the counter with pharmacist consultation Sold in more than 30 countries Prevents 95 of pregnancies if taken in first 24 hours 89 within 72 hours a and b do not protect against pregnancy as ell as the pill 2 Copper IUD insertion Works up to five days The Birth Control Methods Your choice of BC depends on your views on abortion If abortion isn t ok for you high risk BC isn t okay So think about your views on abortion now Double up on BC She uses a method she likes and he uses condoms to lessens chance of STDs and pregnancy Triple if man also uses withdrawal Easy methods 1 Foam cream and jellies All contain spermicide that kills sperm Foam is the best Not effective on own Must use to double up 2 Condoms AKA rubbers skins prophylactics Even pill users need condom protection because pill does not protect against HIV or other STDs Whatever birth control method you use use it all the time Inconsistent use 1 cause of Birth Control failure 3 Withdrawal aka coitus interruptions But man must pull out soon enough and farenough Has a high failure rate but its better than nothing Cheap portable and always available 4 Outercourse Don t put penis in vagina Do body rubbing just not genital to genital ll Methods Requiring Advanced Preparation The female must go to a clinic or MD to be fitted or get a prescription A clinics Student Health Service and Planned Parenthood 518 garden street 9635801 For people who don t have the money 1 Diaphragm Must be used with spermicidal jelly The FemCap A much smaller cap designed to fit right over the cervix Made of smcone 2 IUD Intrauterine device Low cost at student Health 100 plus or minus and they work for 5 to 10 years Just must make sure that strings are still there Recommended More should be using this method to be keeping both the cost of BC and the risk of pregnancy down 3 The Birth Control Pill Modern BC pills have much lower doses of synthetic hormones than did the early pills 60s and early 70s Thus are safer Pros Easy to use Highly effective Very regular cycle Decreases PMS Decreases menstrual disorders Decreases menstrual flow Disorders Decreased menstrual flow Decreased benign breast tumors Decreased cancer of ovaries and endometrium Decreased PID Decreased ectopic pregnancies Decreased ovarian cysts Decreased iron deficiency anemia Decreased osteoporosis Cons Some women experience Weight gain or loss Nausea Breast enlargement and tenderness Headaches Fatigue depression Who should not take the pill History of blood clots History of cancer of breast or other female organs History of serious liver disease History of undiagnosed vaginal bleeding Women who are pregnant Women who smoke and are over 35 4 Nuva Ring is inserted deep into the vagina moisture and heat cause it to timerelease hormones that inhibit ovulation Concentrated in genitals less in rest of body so there may be fewer side effects than pill Contains same hormones as in the combination birth control pills 5 The patch Once per week Three weeks on one week off Move to different body parts every time replace 6 Seasonale BC pills 84 days on 7 days off Only have 4 periods a year 7 Lybrel Progestin and estrogen taken without any break Three Progestin only types of Birth Control 1 Implanon Progestinonly implants Three years of protection 99 effectiveness Little silicone rod put in the arm 2 DepoProvera Aka The shot 16x lower pregnancy rates than Birth Control pills Based on average usage Every three months go in for a new shot Failure rate O3 3 pregnancies per 100 women per year Available in 90 nations and USA 50 per injection Depo provera can cause reversible decalcification so take calcium 3 Progestinonly pill Good to try before using implanon or depoprovera see how your body likes progestin Have to use at the same time everyday Side effects of progestin only All 3 above a Very common a Very irregular menstrual bleeding b Amenorrhea b Less common a Weight gain b Dizziness c Headaches d Depression ll NATURAL METHODS Fertility awareness or rhythm methods Getting your sex life in synch with your body s reproductive rhythms Egg can live about 24 hours and sometimes 48 hours Sperm can live about 72 hours and sometimes up to 5 days Therefore the unsafe period is from day 3 to 1 maybe 5 to 2 IV NON METHODS 1 Douching 2 Wishful thinking 3 Assuming you are infertile VI FUTURE METHODS No radically new methods expected soon Most new things will be modifications of existing methods ie injections of sex hormones like those used in the BC pill Teen sex in 5 advanced nations Sweden france canada UK and US Teens started sex at similar ages in all 5 countries Similar of teens have sex in all 5 countries BUT US teens Are more likely to begin sex before 15 Are more likely to have 2 partners if they had sex in the last year Are less likely to us Birth Control including hormonal BC Have higher STI rates Among teenagers who had sex in the last year those in the US were more likely than those in other developed countries to have 2 partners Abortion US teenagers have higher abortion rates and birth rates compared to other countries What happened to your pregnancy Abortion F 77 F 58 Kept child F 65 M 0 Miscarriage F 13 M 33 Adoption F 3 M 8 Does abortion affect future pregnancies 1 suction abortion probably has no adverse effect on future pregnancies But the more abortions a women has the more chances of miscarriage early births low birth weights etc in later pregnancies If had second trimester abortion or more than one first trimester Over 90 of abortions are done in first trimester when death rates are much lower than the death rate form giving birth which is 10 per 100000 Final 76 Animals take part in homosexual activity also Some animals have a lifelong homosexual preference such as sheep Evidence for a biological influence on sexual orientation Homosexuality runs in families Pillard Having a gay brother raises your chances of being gay along with lesbian sister to being lesbian Twin concordance rates for sexual orientation Percentage of other twins who did not respond to survey who are also gay is higher in monozygotic twins that dizygotic twins Heritability for sexual orientation in women is lower Hormonal influence on sexual orientation Prenatal T gt Sexual differentiation in brain gt gendered traits including sexual orientation Homosexuality is linked to a spectrum of genderatypical traits especially in childhood Green Steensma Rieger Boys who became gay deviated from the straight boys in behavior quite early in childhood and similarly for the girls For more specific traits such as object location memory women typically do better than men But gay men do better also than straight men Animal models of homosexuality can be generated be prenatal hormonal manipulation Partner preference influenced by early hormonal manipulation Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia exposed to high levels of male hormones prenatally have increased likelihood of same sex attraction and expenence Lesbians and gay men are atypical in some anatomical and physiological traits suggesting atypical hormone exposure D2D4 ration and sexual orientation Lesbians have a finger length ratio that is downshifted from heterosexual women Gay and straight men differ in Hypothalamus and sexual orientation Putative sex pheromones activate hypothalamus of gay men in sexatypical fashion Savic et al 2005 76 SOCIOLOGY Sex and gender behavior scripted behavior Each soc provides lines scripts roles which people learn for doing sex gender and their sociological behaviors Scripts vary California East Coast Europe etc and between subcultures Anthropological Data Different socs Eg the Kukukuku New Guinea highlands Believe that sperm is the essence of masculinity Therefore to gain masculinity young men ingest sperm via homosexual oral sex Homosexual behavior natural normal and beautiful to the people taking part Ford and Beech s cross cultural comparison 64 of societies permitted homosexuality and considered it normal All scripts feel natural and normal in the societies that use them Therefore there is a danger in thinking that things that feel natural and normal to you are right or the only ones ethically acceptable lnfibulation Painful procedure done in Africa Major and minor lips completely cut off Cutting off parts or all of the females external genitals Sewing the remaining tissue together to create one small hole for urination and menstruation lnfibulation helps to insure a girl s virginity After marriage it helps decrease her sexual interest reducing infidelity Clitorectomy An ageold tradition in Egypt and other nations Cut off clitoris Are all values relative NO The UN declaration of Human Rights gt Not all values are OK or culturally relative le torture mutilation slavery Summary Values are culturally bound vary from society to society Next values change within a society from time to time EG 1 Only PN sex for procreation is natural an old belief Making homosexuality and masturbation wrong Vatical Declaration on Sexual Ethics 1975 and still upheld Masturbation is an intrinsically and seriously disordered acts 2 main critics of the old view that is only for procreation is natural 1 Anthropology In naturally occurring tribes 64 consider homosexuality natural and normal 2 Biology Animals in natural environments use sexual interactions for many things fun friendliness territorial displays dominance Modern American values big change from old values Society should stay out of the bedroom What is done by consenting adults in the privacy of their own bedroom is no one ese s business as long as it doesn t hurt anyone In 2003 US Supreme Court struck down Texas s anti sodomy law by 6 to 3 vote Justice Anthony Kennedy Gays are entitled to respect for their private lives Due to rights to privacy Gay marriages are legal in Canada Spain Belgium Netherlands and many more Eg 2 Contraception BC Showing values changing over time within our society BC forbidden in USA in early 1900s because it was sinful shocking and illegal Otherwise women always getting pregnant Mandatory motherhood With little time to do other things Like getting an education and career closer relations with her partner travel sports etc etc Also without BC men will not be free Man has to work hard to support 48 kids Man has to work long moonlighting Less time with his partner Man and women become slaves to childrearing Pain of poverty Reaction in 1922 BC is unnatural and immoral gt Grave physical and moral disorders Fibroid tumors sterility neurasthenia infidelity separation and divorce and the woman accepts the condition of a prostitute In the USA over 90 of Catholic women between ages of 15 and 44 who are having sex use artificial methods of BC Don t follow what the pope says 1990 US Bishop Statement a more open stand on sex They still follow Rome but ultimately each person must discern his or her own moral decisions 76 Eg 2 Contraception BC forbidden in USA in early 1900s as sinful shocking and illegal BC is essential to UDCs where increases population leads to poverty hardship environmental degradation and women are trapped into a mandatory motherhood role Eg 3 Abortion Showing values changing over time within our society Pro Life The unborn fetus is fully human and must be protected with all legal rights Pro Choice The woman must be able to make up her own mind It is her right to choose Argue that the conceptus is not a complete person in the early months of development The human potential develops gradually When nations make abortion illegal many women seek out illegal abortions which are high risk to woman s health and life The history of Abortion values a The ancient Greeks The majority favored abortion b The ancient Romans Abortion was popular and common until the rising ration of slaves to citizens caused alarm Laws were passed to limit abortion but they were of minimal success c Christian beliefs Early Christianity Abortion is infanticide murder wrong 1213 century Debate Concluded that it is OK before quickening late 4th month 1588 All abortion is murder 1591 Abortion is OK before 40 days 1869 All abortion is murder d In the 1800s most Western countries passed laws against abortion to protect women from quack doctors e The US shifts during sexual revolution 1968 15 wanted to make abortion legal 1969 40 1972 64 1973 Supreme court Many Americans are not happy with either end of the continuum They want a compromise that avoids extremist positions In 152 64 of women and 72 of males approve of abortion on request for yourself Supreme courts still supports choice freedom to have abortion but states can impose restrictions eg waiting periods World overpopulation 1 cause of hunger poverty pollution destruction of forests extinction of species 10 species become extinct a day If all people in all nations had easy access to BC world problems would be fewer and smaller Earth s sustainability is threatened by the 50 increase in population yet to come in your lifetime Giving people death control ie medicine without birth control leads to an increase in over population World overpopulation leads some to advocate more birth control and abortion on a worldwide level US sexual patterns 1a Nonmarital sex Percent of 1519 year old women who have had sex was 29 in 1970 and 55 in 1990 and 50 in 1995 HIV and AIDs had started to become more widespread caused sexual activity to drop US HS students having vaginal sex dropped from 54 in 91 to 48 in 07 Sexual wildness becoming more conservative HS students who have had 4 or more partners in their lifetime 1991 187 2009 138 76 India movie Main points Male and female gender roles Prostitution Sexual slavery AIDS Girls drugged sold and beaten Sold in Bombay Doing up to 45 men a day The girls have to buy everything for themselves even water must be purchased Locked in until stopped resisting One month of psychological abuse beatings etc Boy sells 2 sisters to get out of debt A father sells his daughter for 35 Girl is tricked abducted and sold She is locked up and enslaved Girl sold to be a temple prostitute There is a shelter to save girls who are at high risk New girls are trained to do the role of prostitute TV ads can mislead the poor Children eager to go to the city for the good life they see in the media After 15 years the women are used up 60 are HlV Many clients refuse to use condoms Girls do it with or without a condom because they need the money It is impacted men can easily go to someone else who will not insist on a condom The police are corrupt Get paid to protect the madams Young girl was a prostitute for 4 years and now has HIV 7 1a Non marital sex HS students 912 Males more often have more partners than females UCSB students who approve of premarital sex If in love m 96 f 91 If casually acquainted f 25 m 47 Males are more likely than females to approve of casual sex with minimal commitment Females are more likely to seek sex in the context of love In the past 25 years there has been increased attention to Romance Also people feel more pleasure with first sex when in a serious relationship than a casual relationship Noticeable increase But most say that romance disappears too soon in their relationship Males are more likely than females to say they have romance with a partner Females have more idealized definitions of romance thus more likely to get disappointed Females get more romantic socializations i Childhood Dolls gt Dreaming of happy home family sitcoms nice romantic girls sheltered from harsh realities ii Adulthood Females fantasies are very romantic 14 billion romance novels sold per year in the USA The Romance Novel He is strong sexually experienced macho She is sensitive smart and underappreciated She tames him and he becomes monogamous caring sensitive and appreciates her Romance novels and movies do to females what porn and soft porn do to males Providing overly idealized images of things to expect from the other sex lmpossibilities lead to frustrations Not living up to the over idealized images from porn and movies The of Americans who want Traditional sex for reproduction and family Female and male 35 Recreational sex For fun and pleasure Male 33 female 19 Sex linked with love and relations Male 37 females 51 Cohabitation Increasingly popular and common Partly due to increased number of years that young people spend single Cohabitation is associated with higher divorce rates Divorced within 10 years in USA 36 of people who did cohabitate 27 of those who didn t Cohabitation leads to higher risk of divorce if people have Prior cohabitation experience Kids No engagement ring The longer you date before marriage especially 2 years the better your chances of a happy marriage Gives you time to find out if you are compatible or not Not necessary to move in together 2 Marriage 96 of females 98 of UCSB males plan to marry Ideal age 256 for females 271 for males 90 of people eventually marriage Very happy with life 39 of married people yes 24 of never married yes 12 of divorcees yes Unmarried women and men are more unhappy than married men and women 3 Divorce Is an important right when people are in painful marriages US divorce rates are approximately 45 and is lower for college graduates If you finish college and marry after 26 years 81 are still married 20 years later vs 45 for HS grads married before 26 Decreases risk of divorce Higher education Postponing having children by 2 years Marrying later Not smoking associated with anxiety and depression The arrival of the first child is the biggest transition in life Parenting is a full time responsibility that often draws husband and wife apan LOVE Creating successful relationships How to get love and how to keep it How to increase quality love no matter how long or short your relationship is Highly romanticized info in movies low on useful info for making lasting love Lasting love is not automatic Many people become disengaged over time Guidelines for intimacy work equally as well for hetero homo and bisexuals Point 1 If you want intimacy and love set it as a primary goal Do no harm Similar to Hippocratic oath No picky fights no nasty blow ups These are usually avoidable Just walk away clear your head Sex alone does not produce such intimacy You have to invest much more of yourselves to have a full rewarding relationship The bank account model of relationship the more you invest the more hours time talks dates etc the more you have 76 Point 2 Early Meeting Phase Avoid using fake images and putting on masks Fake images and masks may feel safer than honesty But they Prevent honest communication Mislead your partner Make it hard for you to switch to honest communication later Be authentic and honest Some people will walk away but those who stay are the ones who value what you value They are the people you really want to meet anyway and your honesty will help them be honest with you Point 3 Be aware of the dangers of infatuation Falling in love can blind you to important information lnfatuation can lead to disappointment with other person with self and can be very painful 4 causes of infatuation 1 Both people are polite put on their best behavior and hide unpleasant behavior 2 They do special fun things rather than boring hard things 3 Novelty makes the early days and weeks especially positive until the novelty wears off 4 Each person idealized the other at first until reality sinks in Remember to build the friendship line ASAP Lasting love is similar to good friendship based on a study of 300 happily married people People in good marriages value spouse for Caring and giving Trustworthiness Sense of humor Integrity being a fine person In good relationships and good friendships the more similar your interests values and religion and favorite activities the greater the chance of success What about opposites attract Differences are positive novelty at first but after the novelty wears off you have a parter with whom you have little in common No 2 people are totally similar and their differences can enrich a relationship with perky counterpoints and novelties allowing them to learn from each other Point 4 Learn how to create intimacy there are several ways The Love Lab John Gottman is A researcher on love and relationships Using video cameras to record talk gestures and actions to find out what helpshurts relationships The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work By Gottman and Silver Why learn about love via trial and error when errors are painful when Gottman and modern psych studies give a lot of powerful information a Communicate Talk together 12 hours a day ideally minimum of four hours a week When they find communication difficult many people turn to TV alcohol drugs parties which can decrease serious conversations Say positive thingssuch as the reasons why you love your partner Don t be afraid to repeat yourself Gottman finds that many people have a hard time dong these exercises in POS exchanges such as 10 things they really love about each other Positive start ups are GOOD The first 13 minutes matters lots Negative start ups are BAD b Create an intimate mood Favorite quiet music gentle conversation candles a quiet room out in nature glass of wine touch Poetry CAUTION c Plan to expand the positive parts of your relationship Hence plan to increase doing activities that you both find positive pleasant exciting rewarding fulfilling Its easy to increase mutually positive things when you both agree But when people don t agree they tend to turn to either i Negotiating down Blaming your partner for making you give up things you used to enjoy ii Negotiating up Both people add shared behaviors and interests to their lives 76 Reasoning is useful in democratic decision making and negotiating up Reasoning is useful for negotiating and all types of decision making Reasoning 1 List many alternative choices and keep your list open so you can add new op ons 2 Democratically discuss the pros and cons of each option For both short and long term You have countless choices You can create your own future or accept the path of least resistance Think Reason Plan You ve got to have a dream to have a dream come true Bloody Mary South Pacific Positive and negative feelings are important Don t forget to discuss them democratically Reason without emotion is dead Emotion without reason is blind Quote Reasoning should not be rigid and overly academic have fun encourage free associations play with unlimited possibilities Postpone a fixed decision as long as possible Stay flexible and open PS in democratic negotiation both people 1 Give ideas gently 2 Listen carefully 3a Try to follow the partners wishes or 3b Suggest alternate solutions until a mutually acceptable compromise is found A person who is low on persuasibility can be a big problem in relationships because they won t listen and change for partner Advantages of reasoning i It increases your communication and understanding ii It helps make your relationship democratic equal and fair iii Later when doing a new activity you won t blame your partner if it is hard because you know the reasons for doing it 4d Practice and learn the new things you ve decided on via reasoning Be gentle be supportive etc One big step can lead to failure set backs quitting Keep things positive Play fun games Joking silliness pet names etc It adds to the positive things you share and helps defuse tensions You can get mad as hell or avoid conflict altogether but the positivity must outweigh the negativity by five to one He means 5 to 1 in a difficult situation Point 5 BUILD TRUST Feelings of trust can come from i a con artist ii a history of honesty in which your partner always lives up to their words Therefore be a person of your words Don t promise things that you do not plan to live up to Look for this quality in others CAUTION Trust is fragile and can be easily damaged by one major dishonesty or one major spiteful comment POINT 6 Learn to cope with problems fights Very important No relationship is problem free Some people say that fighting and making up feels so good Maybe this is true at first but fights tend to escalate over time and each fight is a negative that hurts your positive feelings of love Males are more vulnerable physiologically and psychology in fighting but don t know how to express it as well Showing contempt of your partner is very damaging to a relationship as is giving UNIVERSAL s You are always such a slob Always never UNIVERSAL blanket criticism Predivorced couples vs non divorced Predivorced gave 10 positive and 25 negative messages Non married gave 12 positive and 3 negative messages STOP THE NEGATIVE MESSAGESII Begin to treat people in ways that you would never think of treating a stranger Repair work is important to a growing relationship Do not put you partner down for making repair bids Problems lead to anger Solve the problems and anger will decrease Do less of telling partner what they did wrong and more of telling your partner what they did right Thank your partner for specific behaviors that you like If you take it for granted after a while it may stop coming There are 3 in a relationship You Me and Us All 3 must win