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PSYCH 113 Lectures 1, 2 and 3, with extra definitions from Chapter 1 Reading

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by: Marisa Davila

PSYCH 113 Lectures 1, 2 and 3, with extra definitions from Chapter 1 Reading psy113

Marketplace > University of Rhode Island > Psychlogy > psy113 > PSYCH 113 Lectures 1 2 and 3 with extra definitions from Chapter 1 Reading
Marisa Davila
GPA 3.65

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About this Document

These are my detailed notes from the first week of lectures in Intro to Psychology. They are underlined and in bold so it is easy to understand and follow along with. At the end there is a section ...
Introductory Psychology
Susan boatwright
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisa Davila on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy113 at University of Rhode Island taught by Susan boatwright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Rhode Island.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Psych Notes for quiz #1 (2/4/16)  Lecture 1    What is psychology? ​the scientific study of behavior and mental processes   Data Collection:  1. Case Studies­ good for classroom examples but bad for generalizations  2. naturalistic observation­ observation of the subject in its natural habitat with no  interference   3. surveys­ asking a wide range of people their opinions / experiences etc  4. experimentation­ a controlled environment to test a theory  5. correlational studies­ determines whether or not two variables are related, study  whether an increase or a decrease in a variable corresponds with an increase or  decrease in another variable  experiment:​ ​etermines cause and effect   hypothesis:​ a simple, testable statement about cause and effect  “If… (independent variable), then….. (dependent variable)”   independent variable:​ause   dependent variable: effect        Lecture 2:    Null Hypothesis:manipulating the independent variable did not have effect on the  dependent variable. This is the default assumption and is not wanted, what is wanted is  to disprove his hypothesis  Operational definitions: defining what exactly is going to take place during the  experiment. ex; operationally define ingestion of caffeine. Very important for replication  of the experiment   experimental groups:​  group that gets the experiment done ex; group that gets caffeine  control groups:​ group that does not have a manipulated independent variable ex;  group that does not get caffeine  placebo:​ group that is told they are getting the manipulated independent variable but  the variable was not actually manipulated ex; sugar pills   random assignment to groups:​  every participant has an equal chance to get into  either group with no personal variable affecting the results  confounding variables: ( * includes the variables below) ​variables that interrupts  accurate results  ● subject expectancy:​ the subject has an idea of what the researcher is  hypothesizing,  can have an effect on test results *  ● experimenter bias (Rosenthal Effect):​  experimenter has an idea of what is  going to happen ex; white rats are going to be smarter than the black rats, and  that is exactly what happens *  double blind study: ​ both the experimenter and participant knows whether the  participant is in the control group of the experimental group *  single blind study​ : researcher knows what group the participant is in *     Correlational Studies  ● correlations DO NOT determine cause and effect  ● Only determine if two variables are related  ex; are height and weight related? if so which one “causes” the other  correlation coefficient:an estimate of the degree to which two variables are related   CORRELATION COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE OVER 1 OR LESS THAN ­1   ­ Strongest relationship is whatever number is CLOSEST to 1 (nothing to do with  sign)  ­ positive correlation: when one variable increases the other variable also  increases, or when one variable decreases and the other decreases  ­ negative correlation: when one variable increases the other variable decreases  ­ no correlation: there is no relationship between variables     Lecture 3:  Statistics: Types of Statistics  1. descriptive: describe data  2. inferential: make an inference on whether hypothesis is supported     Descriptive Statistics:  ● can use graphs or figures. Many frequency distributions take the form of a normal  or bell shaped curve   ● statistical calculations: mean, median, and mode  ● measures of variability: range (max ­ min = range), standard deviation: ​ most  common measure of variability,​ it is theaverage deviation from the mean    Inferential Statistics:   ● if the mean # for the experimental group is the same for the control you MUST  accept the null hypothesis because there was no change  ● if we can show that the two means are very different (so different it could not  have been by chance) we can say that they are significantly different and  REJECT the Null Hypothesis  If you can do a calculation (inferential statistic) that will demonstrate that the results  would have occurred fewer than 5/100 times BY CHANCE ALONE, null hypothesis can  be rejected and the results are significant     .05 significance level: ​being able to prove with statistical calculation that results occur  fewer than 5/100 times by chance alone (p < .05 is a significance level, p > .05 is above  significance level)  Professional Ethics  American Psychological Association (APA) Rights:  1. informed consent ­ right to know something about what will happen to you and  that information will give you ability to make informed decision  2. confidentiality­ have a right to know that personal information will not be released  if experiment is published, cannot share private information  3. protection from physical and mental harm­ can’t force someone to engage in an  activity that may put them in harm’s way, or conduct an experiment that will  cause mental harm after the experiment   4. cessation of participation­ have the right to stop participation in an experiment  due to discomfort during experimentation with no penalty or harm  5. cost / benefit analysis­ what are the cost to the participant and benefit to society,  weigh them against each other, and figure whether the benefits outweigh the cost  6. dehoaxing and debriefing­    Example of a study that goes AGAINST ethics: Milgram’s Obedience to Authority >  caused participant mental harm  ­ one of the experiments that gave way to the formation of the APA and guidelines     Textbook Reading:    variable: something that can occur with different values that can be measured  test: uniform situation to a group of people who vary in a particular trait  direct observation: to observe the phenomenon as it occurs naturally   ­ investigators who practice direct observation must be trained to only record and  not put bias into report               


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