PSYCH 113 Lectures 1, 2 and 3, with extra definitions from Chapter 1 Reading
PSYCH 113 Lectures 1, 2 and 3, with extra definitions from Chapter 1 Reading psy113
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisa Davila on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy113 at University of Rhode Island taught by Susan boatwright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Psych Notes for quiz #1 (2/4/16) Lecture 1 What is psychology? the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Data Collection: 1. Case Studies good for classroom examples but bad for generalizations 2. naturalistic observation observation of the subject in its natural habitat with no interference 3. surveys asking a wide range of people their opinions / experiences etc 4. experimentation a controlled environment to test a theory 5. correlational studies determines whether or not two variables are related, study whether an increase or a decrease in a variable corresponds with an increase or decrease in another variable experiment: etermines cause and effect hypothesis: a simple, testable statement about cause and effect “If… (independent variable), then….. (dependent variable)” independent variable:ause dependent variable: effect Lecture 2: Null Hypothesis:manipulating the independent variable did not have effect on the dependent variable. This is the default assumption and is not wanted, what is wanted is to disprove his hypothesis Operational definitions: defining what exactly is going to take place during the experiment. ex; operationally define ingestion of caffeine. Very important for replication of the experiment experimental groups: group that gets the experiment done ex; group that gets caffeine control groups: group that does not have a manipulated independent variable ex; group that does not get caffeine placebo: group that is told they are getting the manipulated independent variable but the variable was not actually manipulated ex; sugar pills random assignment to groups: every participant has an equal chance to get into either group with no personal variable affecting the results confounding variables: ( * includes the variables below) variables that interrupts accurate results ● subject expectancy: the subject has an idea of what the researcher is hypothesizing, can have an effect on test results * ● experimenter bias (Rosenthal Effect): experimenter has an idea of what is going to happen ex; white rats are going to be smarter than the black rats, and that is exactly what happens * double blind study: both the experimenter and participant knows whether the participant is in the control group of the experimental group * single blind study : researcher knows what group the participant is in * Correlational Studies ● correlations DO NOT determine cause and effect ● Only determine if two variables are related ex; are height and weight related? if so which one “causes” the other correlation coefficient:an estimate of the degree to which two variables are related CORRELATION COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE OVER 1 OR LESS THAN 1 Strongest relationship is whatever number is CLOSEST to 1 (nothing to do with sign) positive correlation: when one variable increases the other variable also increases, or when one variable decreases and the other decreases negative correlation: when one variable increases the other variable decreases no correlation: there is no relationship between variables Lecture 3: Statistics: Types of Statistics 1. descriptive: describe data 2. inferential: make an inference on whether hypothesis is supported Descriptive Statistics: ● can use graphs or figures. Many frequency distributions take the form of a normal or bell shaped curve ● statistical calculations: mean, median, and mode ● measures of variability: range (max min = range), standard deviation: most common measure of variability, it is theaverage deviation from the mean Inferential Statistics: ● if the mean # for the experimental group is the same for the control you MUST accept the null hypothesis because there was no change ● if we can show that the two means are very different (so different it could not have been by chance) we can say that they are significantly different and REJECT the Null Hypothesis If you can do a calculation (inferential statistic) that will demonstrate that the results would have occurred fewer than 5/100 times BY CHANCE ALONE, null hypothesis can be rejected and the results are significant .05 significance level: being able to prove with statistical calculation that results occur fewer than 5/100 times by chance alone (p < .05 is a significance level, p > .05 is above significance level) Professional Ethics American Psychological Association (APA) Rights: 1. informed consent right to know something about what will happen to you and that information will give you ability to make informed decision 2. confidentiality have a right to know that personal information will not be released if experiment is published, cannot share private information 3. protection from physical and mental harm can’t force someone to engage in an activity that may put them in harm’s way, or conduct an experiment that will cause mental harm after the experiment 4. cessation of participation have the right to stop participation in an experiment due to discomfort during experimentation with no penalty or harm 5. cost / benefit analysis what are the cost to the participant and benefit to society, weigh them against each other, and figure whether the benefits outweigh the cost 6. dehoaxing and debriefing Example of a study that goes AGAINST ethics: Milgram’s Obedience to Authority > caused participant mental harm one of the experiments that gave way to the formation of the APA and guidelines Textbook Reading: variable: something that can occur with different values that can be measured test: uniform situation to a group of people who vary in a particular trait direct observation: to observe the phenomenon as it occurs naturally investigators who practice direct observation must be trained to only record and not put bias into report
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