Chapter 22 Outline
Chapter 22 Outline HIST 1120
University of Memphis
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1120 at University of Memphis taught by White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see World Civilization II in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 22 outline Chronology 1394-1460: Life of Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal 1488: Bartolomeu Dias’s voyage around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean 1492: Christopher Columbus’s ﬁrst voyage to the western hemisphere 1497-1499: Vasco de Gama’s ﬁrst voyage to India 1519-1522: Ferdinand Magellen’s circumnavigation of the world 1565-1575: Spanish conquest of the Philippines 1768-1780: Captain James Cook’s voyage in the Paciﬁc Ocean Motives for Exploration - basic resources - land suitable for cultivation of cash crops - establish trade routes to Asian markets - expand the inﬂuence of Christianity The Technology of Exploration - ships and sails - rudder onto the stern - square and triangular lateen sails - navigational instruments - magnetic compass - astrolabes - cross-staff - knowledge of winds and currents - volta do mar Voyages of Exploration: From the Mediterranean to the Atlantic - Henry the Navigator conquered the Moroccan port of Cueta and sponsored voyages to the west African coast - Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean - gave merchants opportunity to take part in trade rather than through Muslim intermediaries - Vasco se Gama ship bound to Inida - Christopher Columbus made landfall a the Bahamas, where he thought he was near Asia Voyages of Exploration - Ferdinand Magellan visited ports in the Indian Ocean basin and circumnavigated the world - 18 of the original crew came back, 17 returned later - established trade route between the Philippines and Mexico - Captain James Cook led three expeditions to the Paciﬁc TRADE AND CONFLICT IN EARLY MODERN ASIA Trading Post Empires - Portuguese trading posts to control routes - Alfonso D’Albuquerque - English and Dutch trading posts - United East India Trading Company European Conquests in Southeast Asia - conquests of the Philippines - Manila - Conquest of Java Foundations of the Russian Empire in Asia - Siberia - Native peoples of Siberia responded differently to the Russian occupation - The Russian occupation of Siberia - trading posts and small agricultural settlements European Commercial Rivalries - conﬂicts between Europe and Asia - competed for trade in Asia and the Americas - led to clashes - conﬂicts between the Dutch and Portuguese - Dutch expelled Portuguese and prevented the English from getting footholds in Asia - English and French skirmished over the Caribbean Islands ECOLOGICAL EXCHANGES The Columbian Exchange - diffusion of plants and food crops - involved radially different ﬂora, fauna, and diseases - sharp demographic drop - 100 million people died from diseases - increased population due to the spread of crops and animals - spread of human population The Origin of Global Trade - transoceanic trade - encouraged european colonies in other areas - trade in human beings also ﬁgured in Atlantic commerce - the Manila Galleons - Spanish in Manila took goods to Asia - animals became endangered or extinct
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