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Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 1

by: Adam Rodenberg

Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 1 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001

Adam Rodenberg
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About this Document

This set of notes includes everything Dr. Sears covered in class plus all of the vocabulary and major notes from the textbook from this week.
Evolutionary Biology
Dr. Michael Sears
Class Notes
evolutionary, Biology, Clemson, Vocabulary, textboook




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adam Rodenberg on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Sears in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 1 This set of notes includes everything Dr. Sears covered in class plus all of the vocabulary and major notes from the textbook from this week. 2/4/16 Variation among individuals­ raw material for evolution Cells are distinguished by the proteins they make­ (ex: different patterns of folding, dif.  Substitution effects) Phenotypic variation= genotypic variation + environmental variation + gene by environmental  interaction   ­­­ growing up in a dif. Environment can cause organisms to have dif. Phenotypes VP = VG + VE + VGxE People have the same genes, but dif. Alleles for those genes – ex. Some people taste things  differently, because a PTC taste receptor (PTC = phenylthiocarbamide= bitter) on your tongue  could be encoded by a PAV allele or an AVI allele, meaning they taste different types of “bitter” Genetic variation among individuals in the genome is transmitted from parent to offspring Environmental variation consists of differences among individuals due to exposure to different  environments (ex: some geckos’ sexes at birth are determined by the temperature of the  environment while developing in the egg)­  Gene by environment interaction­ (ex: heat shocking a black caterpillar can make them change  their color) How to tell what is responsible for a phenotypic change? Common garden­  Reciprocal transplant­  Where do new alleles come from? New alleles arise from alterations to existing alleles – can be  from misalignments during DNA replication, this happens fairly often, but is either fixed or does  not work,  Proofreading after replication fixes most of these problematic changes Where do new genes come from? – can be duplicated from unequal crossing over, retroposition,  some can be born from noncoding DNA  Textbook vocab Genetic variation­ diversity in gene frequencies Environmental variation­ genetic variation resulting from environmental influences Genotype­by­environment­ when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in  different ways Genome­ the corpus of genetic instructions carried by an individual  Alleles­ different versions of a gene Genotype­ the combination of alleles an individual carries Phenotype­ the suite of an individual exhibits Inducible defense­ growth of armor in response to phantom midge kairomone  Expression­ production of proteins Epigenetic marks­  Features not directly governed by the genetic code Phenotypic plasticity­a characteristic of organisms who develop different phenotypes in different environments Mutations­ changes in the genome Premutations­ alterations to DNA due to chemical degradation and replication errors must evade  correction to become persistent mutations Point mutation­ the substitution of one base for another (the smallest possible mutation) Transition­ substitution of a purine for a purine or a pyramidine for a pyramidine Transversion­ substitution of a purine for a pyramidine or vice versa Synonymous(silent) mutation­ a mutation that leaves the protein unaltered Nonsynonymous(replacement) substitution­ a mutation that changes the amino acid specified by  a codon Nonsense mutation­ a mutation that introduces a premature stop codon Introns­ noncoding sequences Exons­ coding sequences Indels­ point mutations, insertions, and deletions Gene duplications­ unequal crossing over, retroposition, or retroduplication Pseudogenes­ a nonfunctional gene that lacks regulatory sequences thata cause it to be  transcribed Paralogous­ genes that are located in a genome and later diverge in function Orthologous­ genes derived from a common ancestral sequence and separated by a speciation  event Inversions­ a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end  to end Linkage­ the tendency for alleles of different alleles of different genes to assort together at  meiosis Polymorphic­ chromosomes with and without specific inversions exist Cline­ regular change in the frequency of an allele or an inversion over a geographic area Polyploid­ organisms with more than two chromosome sets Mutation accumulation­ the evolutionary effect of adverse events declines following the age at  which an organism is initially capable of reproduction


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