Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 1
Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 1 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adam Rodenberg on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12050 - BIOL 3350 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Sears in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Evolutionary Bio Test 2 Week 1 This set of notes includes everything Dr. Sears covered in class plus all of the vocabulary and major notes from the textbook from this week. 2/4/16 Variation among individuals raw material for evolution Cells are distinguished by the proteins they make (ex: different patterns of folding, dif. Substitution effects) Phenotypic variation= genotypic variation + environmental variation + gene by environmental interaction growing up in a dif. Environment can cause organisms to have dif. Phenotypes VP = VG + VE + VGxE People have the same genes, but dif. Alleles for those genes – ex. Some people taste things differently, because a PTC taste receptor (PTC = phenylthiocarbamide= bitter) on your tongue could be encoded by a PAV allele or an AVI allele, meaning they taste different types of “bitter” Genetic variation among individuals in the genome is transmitted from parent to offspring Environmental variation consists of differences among individuals due to exposure to different environments (ex: some geckos’ sexes at birth are determined by the temperature of the environment while developing in the egg) Gene by environment interaction (ex: heat shocking a black caterpillar can make them change their color) How to tell what is responsible for a phenotypic change? Common garden Reciprocal transplant Where do new alleles come from? New alleles arise from alterations to existing alleles – can be from misalignments during DNA replication, this happens fairly often, but is either fixed or does not work, Proofreading after replication fixes most of these problematic changes Where do new genes come from? – can be duplicated from unequal crossing over, retroposition, some can be born from noncoding DNA Textbook vocab Genetic variation diversity in gene frequencies Environmental variation genetic variation resulting from environmental influences Genotypebyenvironment when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways Genome the corpus of genetic instructions carried by an individual Alleles different versions of a gene Genotype the combination of alleles an individual carries Phenotype the suite of an individual exhibits Inducible defense growth of armor in response to phantom midge kairomone Expression production of proteins Epigenetic marks Features not directly governed by the genetic code Phenotypic plasticitya characteristic of organisms who develop different phenotypes in different environments Mutations changes in the genome Premutations alterations to DNA due to chemical degradation and replication errors must evade correction to become persistent mutations Point mutation the substitution of one base for another (the smallest possible mutation) Transition substitution of a purine for a purine or a pyramidine for a pyramidine Transversion substitution of a purine for a pyramidine or vice versa Synonymous(silent) mutation a mutation that leaves the protein unaltered Nonsynonymous(replacement) substitution a mutation that changes the amino acid specified by a codon Nonsense mutation a mutation that introduces a premature stop codon Introns noncoding sequences Exons coding sequences Indels point mutations, insertions, and deletions Gene duplications unequal crossing over, retroposition, or retroduplication Pseudogenes a nonfunctional gene that lacks regulatory sequences thata cause it to be transcribed Paralogous genes that are located in a genome and later diverge in function Orthologous genes derived from a common ancestral sequence and separated by a speciation event Inversions a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end Linkage the tendency for alleles of different alleles of different genes to assort together at meiosis Polymorphic chromosomes with and without specific inversions exist Cline regular change in the frequency of an allele or an inversion over a geographic area Polyploid organisms with more than two chromosome sets Mutation accumulation the evolutionary effect of adverse events declines following the age at which an organism is initially capable of reproduction
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