Bio 151 Notes
Bio 151 Notes Bio 151
Cal State Fullerton
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Dennis on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 151 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Alison Miyamoto in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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If Aimee isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Week 1 Cell theory: 1) All things are made up of cells 2) All cells arise from pre-existing cells What does it mean to be living? Reproduce yourself Have metabolism-> take carbon and generate energy that maintain you (ex. proteins, lipids) Aware of environment -> process information for reproduction and energy availability Made of cells! (2nd tenant of cell theory) - Cells have compartments - Eukaryotic cell is bigger and have a membrane around nucleus Endomembrane: create separate compartments within the cell’s cytoplasm What are common features of all cells? Ribosomes, Mitochondria, cytoplasm, Plasma membrane, cytoskeleton What are specific features of prokaryotes, plant, and animal cells? Prokaryotes: Plant: Animals: - Cells + Evolution -> Biodiversity Evolution: process of how organism exist, explains how change in the population occurs over time - Species can change and are related through a common ancestor Natural Selection: Requires genes in order to have different outcomes for reproduction and survival - Genetic variation + Environmental influences -> new species How do we measure diversity? Morphology: visual examination Gene Sequences (ribosomes): DNA- structure, chemistry Metabolism: Obtaining : Photosynthesis (plant) Ingestion (animals, humans) Generating Energy (ATP): Cellular respiration Chemical thermodynamics - Currently, only 1.2 million species actually cataloged How do we organize them all? Tree of Life a.k.a Phylogenetic Tree - The tree of life has 3 main branches: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Common Ancestors Bacteria Prokaryotes: unicellar or Biofilms Archaea Eukarya Have nucleus Domain: group on the phylogenetic tree - Compare the RNA nucleotide sequences (gene sequences) - Prokaryotic cell: ribosomes, plasmids, cytoplasm, chromosome, plasma membrane, cell wall, flagella, photosynthetic membrane Plasma: antibiotic resistance - Many prokaryotes are autotrophic and have membranes that can process ???????? → ????????????2???????????? Plant cell Animal Cell Chloroplasts - Centricules Cell Wall -Lysosomes Vacuoles Parts of cells and their function 1. Nucleus: controls metabolism, the control system where decisions are made 2. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER): proteins are secreted (ex. insulin), everywhere in animal cells 3. Smooth ER: found in both plant and animal cells, used for processing lipids 4. Ribosomes: found in rough ER, transfer RNA 5. Organelles: membrane bound compartment filled with specialized structures in a living cell 6. Golgi Apparatus: found in only one spot in cell, “ships” protein to final destination 7. Peroxisome: found in the cytoplasm, contains catabolism and helps with metabolism, takes care of free radicals 8. Lysosome: takes care of organelles in cytoplasm and is broken down to reuse again 9. Vacuole: storage of pigments in plants 10. Chloroplasts: takes in photosynthetic bacteria and turns into sugar, contains chlorophyll 11. Mitochondrion: makes ATP efficiently to protect bacteria - Not all cells are the same but instead similar - Structure and function and strongly related to one another (molecules, organelles)
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