Psych 288 Week 1 Chapter 1 Notes
Psych 288 Week 1 Chapter 1 Notes Psych 288
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by mkennedy24 on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 288 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. S. Gervais in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Social Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Social Psychology 288- Chapter 1 02/01/2016 ▯ Chapter 1: Introducing Social Psychology Defining Social Psychology o Social Psychology: The scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people (e.g. parents, friends, employers, teachers, strangers, etc.) o Social Influence: The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have our thoughts, feelings, attitudes or behaviors Not just based on persuasion Governed by imaginary approval or disapproval of parents, friends, teachers, etc. Example (Page 3 in Textbook): College students are often conflicted on values and beliefs in college due to other people, the environment, or organizations that were not present at home. Example: Stanford Prison Experiment o Social Psychology, Philosophy, Science, and Common Sense Psychologists look at things scientifically People often unaware of own reasoning and acts Kitty Genovese- New York City 1964 Why did people fail to help Kitty? o “Someone else will help”= Diffusion of Responsibility o Self-Preservation Personality versus Social Psychology o Personality: Individual Focus E.g. Media Response: “Uncaring callous people” o Social Psychology: Situational focus E.g. Neighbor Response: “It was dark and scary outside.” Justifications often replace actual reasoning (Biggs example in textbook pg 2 & 5) Person Kitty Friend in Flat Tire Pan-Handler Genovese Need Kayla No Help Help Help Help 3/4 Pearl No Help Help Help No Help 2/4 Jermey No Help Help No Help Help 2/4 Steve No Help Help No Help No Help 1/4 Results 0/4 4/4 2/4 2/4 Situation visually above Lantané and Darley Experiment: get participants to be acquainted with other involved with experiment (**Note that the researchers said that they could not hear conversations between participants to ensure open-ness) Particular participant has a seizure on purpose to see how many people helped out Group Size Percent Helping 6 (P+Victim+4 others 31% 3 (P+Victim+1 other) 62% 2 (P+Victim) 85% Results show that is more people are around, the person in danger is more likely not to get help Empirical Questions: The answers can be found by experimentation measurement, rather than personal opinion (e.g. “Does said logic always hold up?”, “What are the circumstances at which said logic does or does not hold up?”) Social Psychologists explaining topics of interest Derive various arrays of scientific methods to test methods, assumptions, guesses, and ideas about human social behavior Empirically and systematically Experimentation is difficult because humans are highly sophisticated organisms and predicting behaviors of complex situations is different among each Hypothesis: Highly well thought out educated guess o What makes social psychology unique? Focus on how individuals are influenced by their CONSTRUAL of social situations Social Psychology compared to related disciplines Sociology Social Personality Psychology Psychology Provides general laws and Studies the characteristics theories about societies, notStudies the psychological that make individuals unique individuals processes people have in and different from one common with one another another that make them susceptible to social influence WHY? Personality psych and social psych examples: You have a flat tire and your friend drives right past and does not help. Personality Psych: Your friend is a bad person and you should probably find a new friend Social Psych: Your friend didn’t even see you; they are having issues of their own at the moment During an exam, you classmate keeps looking at your paper. Personality Psych: The classmate is cheating Social Psych: Maybe there is a confusing part in the exam, and your classmate wanted to see if you understood Cross-Cultural Research: Sharpens theories, either by demonstrating their universality of by leading discoveries of additional variables that help us improve prediction of human behavior The Power of the Situation o The Importance of Explanation The Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to explain our own and other people’s behavior in terms of personality traits and to underestimate the power of social influence and the immediate situation (understanding personality isn’t always the cause of behavior, but social situations are.) Lee Ross and students experiment pg. 13 in textbook Domain of Social Psychology: Social and environmental situations are so powerful that they have dramatic effects on almost everyone o The Importance of Interpretation Behaviorism: A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment Positive reinforcement; Negative reinforcement Behavioral psychologists (B.F. Skinner 1938): all behavior could be understood by examining rewards and punishments in the organism’s environment Behaviorists overlooked how people interpreted their environment Gestalt Psychology: A school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people’s minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object Construal: The way a person perceives, comprehends, and interprets a social situation (e.g. Your boss has not responded to her e-mail for a week. How would you respond?) Lee Ross: “Naïve Realism”: the conviction that we perceive things “as they are” Social psychologists emphasize the importance of two central motives: The need to feel good about ourselves The need to be accurate The Self-Esteem motive: The need to feel good about ourselves o Self-Esteem: People’s evaluations of their own self worth—that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent The Social Cognition motive: The need to be accurate o Social Cognition: How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically how people select, interpret, remember, and use social info to make judgments and decisions o Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: You expect that you or another person will behave in some way, so you act in ways to make your predictions reality ▯ ▯
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