Chapter 2 Notes (part 2)
Chapter 2 Notes (part 2) NUTR1213 001
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by pcoliver96 on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR1213 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Jamie Baum in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Nutrition: Chapter 2 Notes part 2 [2.4 introducing the MyPlate diet-planning tool] -food group plan: a diet-planning tool, such as MyPlate, that groups foods according to similar origin and nutrient content and then specifies the amount of food a person should eat from each group -serving: standard amount of food used as a reference to give advice regarding how much to eat -serving sizes also allow comparisons to be made when reading food labels -solid fats: fats that are solid at room temp, such as butter, lard, and shortening -fats may be visible or may be a constituent of foods, such as milk, cheese, meats, and baked products -added sugars: sugars and other caloric sweeteners that are added to foods during processing or preparation -don’t include naturally occurring sugars, such as those found in milk and fruits MyPlate food guidance system -provides food-based guidance to help implement the recommendations for the dietary guidelines for Americans -provides a visual aid to assist in improving diet and lifestyle -MyPlate is designed to help you: -make smart food choices from every food group -find your balance between food and physical activity -get the most nutrition out of your calories by focusing on nutrient- dense foods in sensible portion sizes 10 tips to a great plate 1) balance your calories 2) enjoy your food, but eat less 3) avoid oversized portions UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum 4) eat some foods more often 5) make half your plate fruits and vegetables 6) switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk 7) make half your grains whole grains 8) eat certain foods less often 9) compare sodium in foods 10) drink water instead of sugary drinks Using MyPlate to achieve a healthy lifestyle -MyPlate is designed to help consumers choose foods that supply a good balance of nutrients and to moderate or limit dietary components that are often consumed in excess -six key components: 1) activity 2) variety 3) proportionality 4) moderation 5) personalization 6) gradual improvement Activity -engage in regular physical activity – reduce sedentary behaviors -balancing caloric intake with energy needs can help reduce the risk of chronic disease, help prevent weight gain, and help sustain weight loss -adults should do at least 2 hours and 30 minutes each week of aerobic physical activity at a moderate level or 1 hour and 15 minutes each week at a vigorous level -examples of moderate physical activities: -walking briskly -mowing the lawn -dancing -swimming -bicycling on no incline -examples of vigorous physical activities: -jogging -high-impact aerobic dancing -swimming continuous laps -bicycling uphill UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Variety -MyPlate creates a foundation for good nutrition and health by guiding us to make food selections from all of the food groups and subgroups -different food groups contain different nutrients and other substances known to be protective against chronic diseases -no one food or single food group provides all essential nutrients in amounts necessary for good health Proportionality -MyPlate shows the proportions of foods that should make up a healthy diet -MyPlate provides a visual reminder of a key nutrition principl e: fruits and vegetables form the foundation of a healthy diet and should fill at least half of your plate at every meal Moderation -Many of the foods and beverages most Americans consume contain empty calories -empty calories add calories to food but no nutritional value (solid fats and/or added sugars) -it’s important to emphasize nutrient-rich foods in the diet and limit empty calories to the amount that fits calorie and nutrient needs Personalization -one size doesn’t fit all! -MyPlate can help a person choose the foods and amounts of food that are right for each person Gradual improvement -individuals can benefit from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle every day -examples: taking the stairs instead of the elevator, ordering a salad instead of fries, drinking water instead of cola UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Use the simplicity of MyPlate to build a healthy diet (tables 2.3 & 2.4 in book) -if a person consistently builds their diet by choosing mostly nutrient-dense foods that are low in solid fat and added sugars, they may be able to meet their nutrient needs without using their full calorie allowance -if so, they may have daily limit for discretionary calories for use to meet the rest of their caloric needs Daily limit for discretionary calories -daily limit for discretionary calories: the balance of calories remaining in a person’s energy allowance after accounting for the number of calories needed to meet recommended nutrient intakes through consumption of nutrient-dense foods -can be used to: -eat additional nutrient-dense foods -select a limited amount of foods that are not in their most nutrient - dense form -add fats or sweeteners to foods -eat or drink items that contain only fats, caloric sweeteners, and/or alcohol Eat well, be well -color your plate for health with a variety of fruits and vegetables -fruits and vegetables provide vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals -the naturally occurring phytochemicals, like lycopene, that makes tomatoes red and watermelons pink, may slow the aging process, boost immune function, decrease blood pressure and cholesterol, or prevent cataracts -the naturally occurring phytochemicals, like lycopene, that makes tomatoes red and watermelons pink may: -slow the aging process -boost immune function -decrease blood pressure and cholesterol -prevent cataracts -prevent, slow, or even reverse certain cancers -strengthen our hearts and circulatory system -color your plate with health-protective foods -consume different colored fruits and vegetables UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum -select at least three differently colored fruits and vegetables a day -fruits are a powerhouse of antioxidant nutrients -be adventurous: select from as wide a variety of fruits/vegetables as possible -foods within each group of the MyPlate food guidance system have similar nutrient content -choosing foods from each group offers a variety of the nutrients necessary for health, but variety within a group is important, too -example: strawberries are higher in vitamin C than raspberries but neither supply beta-carotene -make it easy on yourself! -keep fruit and sliced vegetables in easy-to-reach places, such as sliced vegetables in the refrigerator and fresh fruit on the table -keep a variety of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables on hand to add to soups, salads, rice dishes, and other menu items [2.5 how well do we eat?] How well do Americans eat? -Americans’ diets have: -too many calories and too much fat, added sugars, refined grains, and sodium -too few vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products Using MyPlate to improve nutrient and energy intakes -implement a diet that is: -energy balanced, limited in total calories, and portion controlled -nutrient-dense and includes vegetables, fruits, high-fiber whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, seafood, lean meat, poultry, eggs, soy products, nuts, seeds, and oils -very low in solid fats, added sugars, and sodium Exchange lists -lists of categories of foods, such as fruit, with portions specified in a way that allows the food to be mixed and matched or exchanged with one another in the diet UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum -serving sizes within a group are determined by considering the calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat content of the food -examples: half a cup of orange juice, a small banana, or a small apple each count as a serving of fruit, diabetic exchange list [2.6 more tools for diet planning] -nutrition facts panel: detailed breakdown of the nutritional content of a serving of food that must appear on virtually all packaged foods sold in the US -daily value: amount of fat, sodium, fiber, and other nutrients health experts say should make up a healthy diet -tells the percentage of a nutrient that’s a serving of the food contributes to a healthy diet More tools for diet planning -food labels -using the nutrition facts panel -using the percent daily values -the food label gets ready for a makeover -nutrient content claims -health claims More tools for diet planning: important legislation -1990: congress passed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act – called for changes in the ways foods were labeled in the US -ensures that food companies provide the kind of nutrition information that best allows people to select foods that fit into a healthful eating plan -Affordable Care Act: signed into law March 23, 2010 – mandates that the FDA establish labeling requirements for restaurants, retail food establishments, and vending machines -examples: fast food outlets, bakeries, coffee shops and certain grocery and convenience stores -restaurants with 20 or more locations must now provide the calories, milligrams of sodium, and grams of saturated fat contained in their menu items UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Food labels -by law, all food labels must contain the following five components: 1) the name of the food, also known as the statement of identity 2) the name of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor as well as the firm’s contact information 3) the net contents of the package, which tells you the quantity of the food product that is in the container and helps you compare prices 4) the ingredients list, with items listed in descending order by weight -the first ingredient makes up the largest proportion of all the ingredients in the food -must be in simple, easy to understand terms when they are made with food allergens 5) the nutrition facts panel (unless the package is small) The food label gets ready for a makeover -March 2014: the FDA proposed to update the nutrition facts panel in order to reflect new dietary recommendations and public health concerns, including the link between diet and chronic diseases such as obesity and heart disease -the proposed changes include: -updating out-of-date serving size requirements, so they reflect the amounts people actually eat and drink -emphasizing certain elements such as calories, serving si zes, and percent daily values -types of fats -calorie and nutrition information for the entire package in addition to per serving -info about added sugars Nutrient content claims (table 2.7 in book) -claims such as low-fat, low-calorie, light, etc. used on food labels to help consumers who don’t want to read the nutrition facts panel get an idea of a food’s nutritional profile -must adhere to specific definitions set forth by the FDA UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Health claims -characterize the relationship of a food of food component to a disease -a statement of the food label linking the nutritional profile of a food to a reduced risk of a particular disease -there are strict government guidelines for making such claims [2.7 a tapestry of cultures & cuisines] -ethnic and regional food practices: -Chinese food: the traditional diet has the majority of calories from grains, legumes, and vegetables -four schools of cooking: 1) Peking 2) Shanghai 3) Szechwan/Hunan 4) Cantonese -Italian food: as prepared and served in the U.S. is very high in fat and calories -healthy substitutions are possible: vegetables for sausage and pepperoni on pizza, reduced-fat cheeses for the high-fat versions, and olive oil in place of butter -some scientists advocate a “Mediterranean diet” that includes generous amounts of olive oil -Indian food: traditional diet is known for heavy use of vegetables and spices -distinct characteristics are based on geographic location, religious beliefs, and availability -vegetarianism is predominant -meat as part of the diet is eaten in moderation -prepared in a traditional manner, the cuisine provides benefits of a high-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cost diet that is as tasty as it is healthy -African American diet: traditional “soul food” has West African origins -slaves brought to the US changed diets to match foods that were provided – corn, salt pork, garden vegetables (cabbage, collard and mustard greens, black-eyed peas, etc.) UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum -fried chicken and fried catfish were included in diets of those cooking for their owners -today’s diets are influenced by economic status and geographic location along with tradition -Jewish foods: kosher -rules of kashrut specify the kosher foods (fit to eat) -Jewish dietary laws are considered divine commandments set forth to maintain spiritual, not physical, health -examples: pork is forbidden, only animals with cloven hooves that chew their cud are allowed (cattle, sheep, goats, and deer), birds of prey and shellfish are not allowed, etc. -diet is high in sodium UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum
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