University of Memphis
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hendree on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1120 at University of Memphis taught by White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see World Civilization II in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Essay#1, Exam#3 World War I discredited established institutions and long-held beliefs about the superiority of European Society. What were the cultural, scientific, economic, and political developments that emerged in the two decades after the end of the war? I. Cultural Developments: The war was destroyed the belief of the universality of human progress. Political and economic elites were discredited, leading to mass emotions and appeals to live for the moment. Karl Barth wrote Epistle To The Romans attacking liberalism, and how man cannot limitlessly improve himself. Oswald Spengler wrote the decline of the West about the inherent weakness of civil society, and Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms and Erich Maria Remarque’s All Quiet on The Western Front portrayed endless and meaningless war. II. Scientific Changes: The postwar changes in physics changed the universal mechanical and natural laws of Issac Newton and the Enlightenment. Albert Einstein showed there was no Singlespatal and chronological framework in the universe. Established morality and values were challenged by psychology with Sigmund Freud. These scientific changes were reflected in the new international Bauhaus movement in the Functionality of Architecture and structure; and psychology was illustrated in the new art movements of expressionists, cubists, abstractionists, Dadaists, or surrealists which attempted to “abolish the sovereignty of appearance.” III. Economic Developments: The war had destroyed the value of currency, investments, and international trade. All of the European combatants had seen their debts to the United States and their citizens rise to unprecedented levels. When postwar inflation occurred, savings and investments were wiped out. New technology in the use of synthetics and recycling meant raw materials obtained from colonies were valueless, causing a strain on European governments. Agriculture underwent a generational decline due to overproduction and overinvestments. When the United States stock market collapsed due to overpricing and foreign debt that could not be repaid, a worldwide economic collapse occurred that led to all industrialized states to have an average of 20% unemployment rates for a decades. IV. Political Developments The uncertainties from the war and the Great Depression fed into the distrust of liberal democracy, with greater demands from immediate solutions through strong actions. State owned, regulated, or directed economies were established in Russia (The 5-Year plan of Collectivization), Germany (Natonal Socialism), Italy (Corporatism under the Fascists), France (Socialism under the popular front), and the United States (The New Deal). Essay #2, Exam 3 After 1945, Western European imperialism and the balance of power among great powers with limited or regional strength shifted to the formation of a bipolar world made up of two superpowers which had global strength: the Soviet Union and the United States. What were the ideologies and structures for each? What were the domestic developments inside the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.? How did the tensions effect European nations and their colonies. I. U.S.S.R.: Communism run by the dictatorship of the proletariat aimed at industrial development and state-mandated goals of production. Equal quality housing and access to services and material goods. Established the council for mutual economic assistance (Comecon) and the Warsaw Pact, and advocated glbal wars of liberation from European imperialism. II. Domestic Developments: US.: Economic growth was technologically based for domestic consumer demands such as cars, homes, household appliances, and mass entertainment (T.V., radio, music). Economy explodes. Goals for freedom of opportunity for all leads to national efforts of home ownership (suburbs), mobility (interstate highways, the Sun Belt), and civil rights (integration, voting rights). However, fears of nuclear war and internal divisions leads to Anti-Communist investigations, large military drafts (1947-1973), and fears of too-rapid changes in society and politics. U.S.S.R.: Mass Conscription and conformity leads to dissent, which is brutally supporessed. Economic productivity and technological innovation centered into military needs. Urban industrial workers housed in large housing complexes, state owned and maintained, offering identical facilities. Ideological conformity enforced by the KGB, the GULAG, deportations, and restrictions on religious and ethnic ceremonies and identities. Essay #3 Exam 3 The Cold War (1947-1991) ended two eras: European imperialism and global Communism. As a result, international connections ceased to be dominated from Europe, or from an industrial economic model. What were the new political, economic, and social developments in the world?
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