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Notes about the Brain Structure

by: Gabriel Santana Aguayo

Notes about the Brain Structure PSYC 1101

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PSYC 1101 > Notes about the Brain Structure
Gabriel Santana Aguayo
Georgia Tech

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About this Document

These notes focus on explaining the Brain structure and its functions.
Psychology 1101
Shivangi Jain
Class Notes
Psychology Brain
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriel Santana Aguayo on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at a university taught by Shivangi Jain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
PSYC 1101 Class Notes (Brain) 1. Basic building block of the nervous system: Neuron 2. A neuron at rest a positive charge. F (­70) 3. Division of ANS: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic 4. Three functional class of neuron are: sensoryneuron, interneuron, motorneuron 5. Name two classes of neurotransmitters along with their functions: dopamine (causes  Parkinson) and serotonin. Major divisions of the Brain: ­ Hindbrain medulla, pons, reticular formation ­ Midbrain: superior colliculus (allows us to locate something in space) and inferior colliculus  (allows us to locate sound). ­ Forebrain: thalamus (sensory information relay station, visual, auditory), hypothalamus (eating,  drinking, sex, temperature), amygdola hippocampus also known as the limbic system (regulates  emotion and memory) Hindbrain: 1. Medulla (vital life functions) ­ breathing ­ heart rate ­ blood pressure 2. Pons ­ Bridge between medulla and higher brain strucutres ­ sleep/arousal 3. Cerebellum ­ Posture/muscle tone/coordination ­ Memories for skills/habits ­ Damage? 4. Reticular activating system (RAS) or reticular formation ­ attention/arousal ­ sleep ­ wakefulness Midbrain: ­ Smaller in humans compared to other animals ­ Tectum (superior and inferior colliculi) and Tegmentum ­ Tracks visual stimuli and reflexes triggered by sound 1. Superior colliculus: ­ locates objects in space 2. Inferior colliculus: ­ locates sound in space Forebrain: ­ Thalamus: relay station for sensory messages (visual, touch, etc) ­ Hypothalamus: regulates emotional behaviors and motives (sex, rage, temperature control,  behaviors are organized and “decided on”) ­ Amygdala: regulates arousal and fear ­ Hippocampus: associated with storing lasting memories ­ Cerebrum (Cortical) ­ Limbic system (linked to emotion and behavior): made up of hypothalamus, parts of thalamus,  amygdala, hippocampus.  The Endocrine System ­ Endocrine system: a system of glands which release hormones ­ Hormones: secretions that affect bodily functions and behavior ­ Different from neurotransmitters: carried by the blood vessels and not by nerves Pituitary gland ­ Pituitary (regulates growth) ­ controls thyroid, adrenals, and gonads ­ directed by hypothalamus ­ Pituitary problems: ­ if too little growth hormone: hypopituitary dwarfs ­ if too much growth hormone: Giantism ­ too much growth hormone late in the growth period: Acromegaly ­ Pineal Gland: ­ regulates body rhythms and sleep cycles ­ melatonin ­ Thyroid (in neck; regulates metabolism) ­ hyperthyroidism – thin, tense, nervous ­ hypothyroidism – obese, sleepy, depressed ­ Adrenal glands ­ releases epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine ­ stress hormone (sympathetic nervous system) ­ secondary source of sex hormones 1. Three major divisions of the brain are the: Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain 2. Reflex centers for heartbeat and respiration are found in the: medulla 3. What are the major subcortical structures and what functions do they control? Thalamus,  Hypothalamus, Amygdola, Hippocampus  Forebrain – Cortex ­ evolution Cerebral Cortex ­ Gray matter: spongy tissue made up mostly of cell bodies ­ Corticalization: increase in size and wrinkling of the cortex ­ No cortex? Would not be able to think or reason.  Two hemispheres: Corpus Callosum Left controls the rights and right controls the left! Prefrontal cortex: ­ integrated information ­ decision making ­ organizing/planning ­ personality ­ monitoring emotions ­ speech production (Broca’s area) Somatosensory cortex: ­ Temperature (hot/cold) ­ Pain ­ Touch Homunculus Neglect syndrome ­ damage to association somatosensory areas ­ common cause: stroke ­ inability to attend to events on one side of the body


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