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Brain Notes Part II

by: Gabriel Santana Aguayo

Brain Notes Part II PSYC 1101

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PSYC 1101 > Brain Notes Part II
Gabriel Santana Aguayo
Georgia Tech

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Part II of the Brain Structure and its functions
Psychology 1101
Shivangi Jain
Class Notes
Psychology Brain
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriel Santana Aguayo on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at a university taught by Shivangi Jain in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
PSYC 1101 Class Notes  Occipital Cortex ­ Primary visual cortex ­ association areas ­ output to other brain regions ­ damage can lead to blindness Neglect Syndrome ­ damage to association somatosensory areas ­ common cause: stroke ­ inability to attend to events on one side of the body (right) Temporal Cortex ­ primary auditory cortex ­ Wernicke’s area – speech comprehension ­ behind ears Hemispheric Specialization ­ How do we test one side of the brain? ­ Split­brain patients ­ Corpus callosum is cut to control severe epilepsy ­ Result ­ Two brains in one body Left Hemisphere: De que esta compuesto? Right Hemisphere: Que es? Brain Imaging Techniques: ­ Electroencephalograph (EEG) ­ detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain ­ Positron emission tomography (PET) ­ provides more detailed images of activity both near the surface and below ­ Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ­ makes brain actively visible ­ Diffusion Tensor imaging (DTI) ­ whit matter pathways ­ Transcranial Magnetic stimulation (TMS) ­ activates/diactivates brain area by applying magnetic pulse Selective Attention: Attention ­ process that, at a given moment, enhances some information and inhibits other information. The enhancement enablues us to select some information for further processing, and the inhibition  enables us to set some information aside. Perception is active, and resources are limited. ­ We use selective attention to focus in on chosen stimuli in our environment. ­ Voluntarily focusing on a specific sensory input ­ Inattentional blindess ­ Change blindness ­ Cocktail party effect Multitasking ­ divided attention ­ multitasking involves paying attention to more than one stimulus at the same time ­ experiments show that using a cell phone while driving increases the likelihood by four times of having an accident. ­ hands­free phone operation is no exception. Sensation and Perception Eye – transduction of light to chemical energy ­ eye as a camera ­ light travels through the cornea and is shaped and refracted by the lens so that it is focused  against the retina ­ the iris controls the amount of light that enters the retina ­ accomodation: process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina ­ At the retina: light is transduced into neural potentials (phototransduction) Two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina 1. Cones: detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on  fine detail. Fovea – area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at  all (only cones) 2. Rods – become active under low­light conditions for night vision Blind spot: location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina ­ corresponding area of the retina contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no  mechanism to sense light Perceiving Color ­ color is our perception of light wavelengths on the visible spectrum. ­ cones are sensitive to red (long­wavelength), green (medium­wavelength), and blue (short­ wavelength) ­ All other colors are combinations of these three wavelengths. ­ Color blindness ­ Color blindness ­ Cannot perceive colors ­ Lacks cones or poorly functioning cones ­ Color weakness (partial color blindness) ­ Can’t see certain colors ­ Ishihara test Perceiving colors ­ opponent­process theory of color vision ­ after that minute of extended staring, the ability of these cells to fire action potential was  exhausted. ­ when you shifted your focus to a blank screen, those cells were still unable to fire and only  opponent process cells continued to fire action potentials. The Visual Brain ­ information encoded by the retina travel to the brain (along the optic nerve) for further  processing. ­ Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), V1: Part of the occipital lobe that contains the  primary visual cortex ­ Feature detectors in V1 The Visual Brain ­ two distinct pathways, or visual streams, project from the occipital cortex to visual areas in other parts of the brain. ­ Ventral stream (“what”) to temporal lobe ­ Dorsal stream (“where”) to the parietal lobe Perceptual Processes  ­ percepts as constructions ­ making sense of your perceptions ­ illusions as misconstructions (misjudged) ­ ames room Recognizing Objects by Sight ­ Grouping: involves separating a figure from is background ­ Reversible figure ­ Gestalt perceptual grouping rules: simplicity, closure, continuity, similarity, proximity, common fate ­ Perceptual constancy: even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains consistent.


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