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Central Nervous System

by: Chelsea Jenkins

Central Nervous System BIO 229

Marketplace > Murray State University > Biology > BIO 229 > Central Nervous System
Chelsea Jenkins
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PowerPoint 1- Chapter 8 Covers CNS development and organization.
Human Physiology
Sterling Wright
Class Notes
Human Physiology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Jenkins on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 229 at Murray State University taught by Sterling Wright in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
PowerPoint 1 Central Nervous System (CNS) Development and Organization Road Map CNS Brain Spinal Cord Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon  CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord and is further subdivided into the Cerebrum, Brain Stem, and Cerebellum. o The CNS components are covered in meninges (dura mater, arachnoid mater, pita mater. To increase surface are, there are gryi and sulci. rd th  After the 3 -4 week after fertilization, the cavity of the CNS forms ventricles. o The process of forming the neural tube is neurulation o Formation of the neural tube is from the folding of the ectoderm (which forms the forebrain to the hind brain.) o When the tube forms, the neural crest cells (temporary cells) become neurons, ganglia and swan cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). o The neural tube becomes the CNS. Accordingly, the spinal canal forms into the spinal cord (which has the constancy of toothpaste) and the neural canal becomes the ventricles.  The CNS has Grey and White matter o Grey matter- does not have myelin (Schwan cell) since it is the neuron cell bodies and dendrites o White matter- has myelin (Schwan cell wrapped around the axon)  This is where the axon tracts run  Fun fact- there are no pain receptors in the brain.  The largest part of the brain = Telencephalon or Cerebrum o Where higher brain functions (thoughts and actions) occur. o Divided into 5 lobes or parts:  Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Insula (under the temporal lobe)  Cerebrum o Frontal Lobe  Motor control is located the pre-central gyri (gyri=bumps/hills of surface)  Fine motor control=more neurons needed  Least motor innervation parts of the body have little space in the motor cortex (controls voluntary movement).  Personality is also associated with this lobe  Functions: Motor control of voluntary muscles, verbal communication, higher brain functions o Parietal Lobe  Somesthetic (body sensations) perception is associated with the post central gyri  Like the motor cortex, the places on the body with the most receptors (like sensory and temperature receptors) have a large real estate in the sensory cortex.  Functions: interprets shapes/textures, comprehends and expresses speech. o Temporal Lobe  The cochlea sends sensory fibers to the auditory centers, which is then interpreted and associated (connects to motor neurons) by this lobe.  Visual info is also interpreted and associated here.  Functions: interprets sounds and stores sound and vision memories o Occipital Lobe  Vision and coordinates eye movements  Functions: Eve movement, correlates vision with previous visual memories. o Insula  Function: Memory  Diencephalon o Compromised of :  Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland o Thalamus  Largest chunk of the Diencephalon  Relays sensory info (except sense of smell) to the cerebrum  Visual info relay: Lateral Geniculate Nuclei  Auditory info relay: Medial Geniculate Nuclei  Nucleus: Collection of cell bodies in the CNS  Ganglion: Collection of cell bodies in the PNS  Midbrain o Compromised of:  Corpora Quadrigemina (above Cerebrum)  Consists of: o Superior Colliculi-Vision o Inferior Colliculi- Auditory  Cerebral peduncles  Substantia nigra  Red nucleus o Functions:  Auditory info relay  Visual reflex  Motor coordination  Parkinson’s disease- degeneration of axon fibers from substantia nigra  Hindbrain o Metencephalon  Components:  Pons  Cerebellum  Pons  Contains respiratory centers and regulates respiration  Cerebellum  Coordinates movement and receives info from proprioceptors (receptors that have to do with your body’s awareness with its surroundings) o Myelencephalon aka the medulla  Periphery fiber tracts from the spinal cord run through the medulla to get to the brain.  Regulates autonomic control of the heart  Ascending Spinal Tracts o These tracts convey sensory info to the cerebral cortex from cutaneous and visual receptors, as well as proprioceptors. o The information crosses the midline, so information of the left side of the body is sent to the right side of the brain.  Descending Spinal Tracts o For fine movements, the tracts descend directly from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, without the synaptic interruption. These tracts of pyramidal o Reticulospinal tracts involve gross, voluntary movement. These are extrapyramidal.  Cerebral Lateralization o This regards the specialization of one hemisphere. o The left hemisphere is more skilled in language and analytics. o The right hemisphere has a limited verbal ability, but is more skilled at visual/spatial tasks.  Language and Aphasia o Broca’s-motor speech area is by in the left hemisphere, by the frontal lobe, and controls the lips, tongue and jaw movements. It is also associated with speech articulation/production.  If this area is damaged, then the comprehension of language is not affected. The ability to comprehend sentences, but has difficulty repeating it. o Wernicke’s area is located in the cortex of the temporal lobe and is associated with language comprehension.  If this area is damaged, then the ability to comprehend language is destroyed, but the person can still speak (words are jumbled, rapid and do not make sense).


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