PSY 325 Week 2 Notes
PSY 325 Week 2 Notes PSY 325
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 325 at Colorado State University taught by Karla Gingerich in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Lecture 3: Ch. 1 & Ch. 2 (January 25th) Monday, February 1, 2016 1:07 PM Engagement writing #1 Assignment: due Mon, Feb. 1 (1 week st from today) What do you know when you know a person? Dan McAdams Talk about a person in your life like this Their traits and roles Their values & goals (motivations) Know their life story Reading Question for Wed. reading: Is IQ a personality trait? (Ch. 3) Reading questionsstor today Funder’s 1 Law: Great strengths are often great weaknesses Funder’s 2 nd Law: There are no direct indicators of personality, there are only clues, and clues are always ambiguous. W.E.I.R.D. countries: Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic This is important for when gathering data because data may be skewed if coming from these specific areas Is the U.S. a WEIRD country? Yes Ch. 2 Notes: Personality Research Methods Gathering Personality Data Personality is a construct, like gravity; observable aspects of personality are clues Four common sources of personality data: SILB Self Report; Informant Data; Life Outcome Data; Behavioral Data S-Data Self-report data (70% of all data about someone is this kind) Self-judgments “Tell me about yourself” Pros and cons Pros: Easy, fast way to learn about someone Cons: your own bias Can be subjective due to your mood People can lie or withhold information about themselves Face validity On the surface, appears to measure what it’s supposed to Causal force If you believe something about yourself, you will strive to make that thing true (ex. Being generous) Pros and Cons I-Data Informant data From people who know the person Subjective judgments of others Informants usually know the subject Pros and cons Limited observations (think Grandma) Over-generalizing from a B trait to an A trait Does it matter who people think you are? Yes L-Data Life outcomes (records, archives) Can we know about a person based on pictures of their space? These snapshots/records are considered Life Outcome data Are these data prone to the bias of S-data and I-data? No, because it just is the way it is But it can be interpreted with bias Depends on who you’re comparing it too How well do personalities predict L-data? It’s very difficult to make connections between personality and L-data (personality predicting their data) B-Data Behavioral data (direct observations) Pros and cons? Recall Funder’s “second law” and the goal of Chapter 1: only clues, and clues are ambiguous What is accurate? Handshake activity Lecture 4: Chapter 2 Friday, January 29, 2016 1:04 PM Trusting the Test o Reliable tests of trait data provide consistent data on multiple occasions o Be aware: trait vs. states State = temporary o More measurements are better than fewer (the principle of aggregation), for predicting B o Valid tests actually measure what they say they measure o Construct Validation: establishing a test's validity by comparing it with other measures of the construct Research Designs o Cases Popular in Personology (coined by Henry Murray) Idea is to understand the whole person o Correlational studies Most frequent design for studying traits o Experimentation Ex: Do caffeine and/or time pressure affect test performance? Introverts did worse with time pressure and caffeine and the extroverts did better CH. 3 p 67-91 Personality Assessment o Psychologists do not agree about whether intelligence is or isn't a personality trait o Personality Tests S-data tests and B-data tests Projective tests vs objective tests Projective - you don't know what you are reporting Rorschach inkblot test Projective hypothesis: ambiguous stimuli draw out "hidden aspects of the mind" (thoughts, feelings, needs) The issue of validity (and over- pathologizing) Is it actually measuring what they think it is measuring International Rorschach Society Members from all over the world 82% of clinicians surveyed said yes that they use it but the test is 20 years old Now 43% of clinicians say they use it in their practice but only to break the ice Does seem to predict thinking disorders like schizophrenia pretty well - original intent of Rorschach test Objective - you know what you are reporting, typically an S-Data test Ex: rating of myself, true false about myself Lecture 5: Ch. 3 Friday, January 29, 2016 1:02 PM Optional Out of class activities o Harvard's implicit attitudes test o TAT linguistic analysis Projective Tests o Draw-a-Person and other projective drawings What you draw is important according to psychoanalytic theory because you don't have specific instructions on what mood they are or how the people are Examples Kinetic family drawing (together? Separate?) Draw a person in the rain (is the person coping? Do they have an umbrella? Umbrella = coping) We assume the patient is drawing about themselves o Hug-a-tree test: how high the knot is on the tree shows something about how they feel o DAP: examples 1st example 7 year old's image Average IQ Drew a person with 2 butterflies 2nd example 7 year old Average IQ In treatment for aggression, and hurting animals 3rd example 9 year old High IQ; analyzed as normal, happy o CAT - Children's apperception test Ex: a large lion sitting in a chair and a tiny mouse in the corner (watch for kids to tell the story with them as the mouse Projective Tests o Are tese cards really "ambiguous?" o Is the TAT a valid measure of personality? May capture some psychological "needs" or "motives" (although not consistently) Objective Tests o MMPI: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Created in 1943 for clinical use; 567 items Includes lie scales Several versions, including the MMPI-A Better validity & reliability This test gives a profile Creating Objective Tests o Rational Method- come up with questions that you think make sense to ask Woodworth Personal Data Sheet (used w/ those in the army a long time ago to discern if they had PTSD) Are you troubled with dreams about your work? Have you ever fainted away? Has any of your family committed suicide? These would be considered S-Data Face validity? Yes o Empirical Method- Items distinguish between known groups Ex: the MMPI B-data Face validity? The results say "You score like people who are _________." o Factor Analysis: coming up with questions that just make sense Can categorize people based on their attributes Because certain attributes occur in groups/together (they correlate) Start with many items administered to many people (like those that will take the test) Every item is correlated with every other, and factors (highly correlated with groupings) emerge Discard items that don’t' correlate highly Name the factors (will pick up here on Monday)
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