Sociology Notes 1/25-1/29
Sociology Notes 1/25-1/29 Sociology 20213
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Notetaker on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Hampton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Sociology Class Notes 1/25-1/29 1/25/16 Social Construction of Reality: the process through which facts, knowledge, truth and so on are discovered, made known, reafﬁrmed, and altered by the members of society. Culture and Language -we interact through language, its a key tool in the construction of society, language gives meaning to people, events, and ideas of our lives Reporters were using the word refugee to describe someone that was a tax payer, so that word was problematic Language: also used to reinforce prevailing ideas and suppress conﬂicting ideas about he world Euphemism: Language is sometimes used to purposely conceal as well -ex: a euphemism is an innocuous expression substituted for one the tight be offensive -they shape perceptions and emotions Language of War -contains euphemisms designed to minimize the public’s discomfort an increase its support -ex: collateral damage (civilian deaths during military combat) or friendly ﬁre (accidental shooting of fellow soldiers) -“war” on Terrorism, War on Terror, Global War on Terror, “A Global Struggle against violent extremism” Building the Walls: Conﬂict, power and social institutions -The conﬂict perspective points out, certain people or groups of people are more inﬂuential in deﬁning reality than others. -In our society, socioeconomic classes, ethnic and religious groups, age groups, and political interests struggle for control over resources. The Economics of reality -Deﬁnitions for reality frequently reﬂect underlying economic interests -someone is beneﬁtting at the expense of someone else The Politics of Reality -The institution of politics is also linked to societal deﬁnitions of reality. -To a great extent, politics is about controlling public perceptions so people will do things or think about issues in ways that political leaders want hem to. The Medium is the message -Communication media are the primary means by which we are entertained and informed about the world around us. -But the messages we receive from the media also reﬂect dominant cultural values. Who “Owns” the media? -in 1983, 50 companies controlled 90% of all US media outlets -By 2011, just six companies - comcast, disney, news corp, time, warner, viacom, CBS- owned 90% of all media outlets, 1/27/16 Homework 1. What is sociologically signiﬁcant about the simulated prison experiment? What can students learn from this study? 2. What concerns, if any, do you have regarding the ethics of this research? Do you think the subjects in this experiment were exposed to any unnecessary harm or discomfort as a result of their participation in the study? Moral Entrepreneurs -Certain people have social concerns they passionately want to translated into law For example: groups that seek to outlaw or increase punishment for things like -pornography, drunk driving, sexually explicit songs -they are crusading for the creation of a new public conception of morality -They are not necessarily wealthy or inﬂuential, could have just been related to victims of the event -Good at using publicity and public relations -Successful in neutralizing any opposing viewpoints -make good poster childs Contributions of Sociological research Sociologicsts, as well as other social scientists, seek to identify reality through systematic, controlled empirical research -qualitative : research based on non numeric info that describes social life -more in depth, interviews -Quantitative: research based not he collection of numerical data that utilizes precise statical analysis advantages Experiments -a search situation designed to elicit some sort of behavior under closely controlled laboratory circumstances -Advantages -the researcher can directly control all the relevant variables, thus can easily study casual relationships -Disadvantage --not a natural environment, subjects may behave differently Field Research -direct observation of people in their natural settings -nonparticipant observation: researcher observes people without directly interacting with them or without them knowing they are being observed -participant observation: researcher directly interacts with the subjects. in some cases, the researcher openly identiﬁes herself or himself. Advantages -provides detailed and descriptive understandings of people’s everyday lives -generally inexpensive to conduct Disadvantages -time consuming -difﬁcult to replicate -difﬁcult to generalize to other groups -particularly susceptible to ethical issues Surveys data collected through questionnaires or interviews advantages large population can be studied random, representative sample results can be generalized disadvantages little in-depth information about people’s behavior or experiences questions need to be correctly worded Unobtrusive Research researcher does not have direct contact with subjects in order to avoid reactivity -used when the act of intruding into people’s living may inﬂuence study -adjusting the light in the a factory Analysis of existing data -relies on secondary data contact analysis -cultural shifts over time Historical analysis -relies on existing historical documents The trustworthiness of social research -In order to evaluate the results of social research, it is necessary to examine a researcher’s samples, the indicators used to measure important variables, and the researcher’s personal qualities - namely, values, interests, and ethics. Sample, represetative, indicators Sample- a smaller subgroups of respondents selected form a larger population Values, interest, and ethics in sociological research -Ideally, research is objective and nonbiased. However, sociologists are people and they do have biases and preconceptions. Values - can inﬂuence the questions that researchers ﬁnd important to address in the study Ethics - another important quality that impacts the trust worthiness of social research 1/29/16 Milgrim Experiment Video -An experiment to see if a person would administer an electric shock to another person if their authority (the experimenter) told them to Differences in female responses should be notes during the video -females were more likely than males to give the shock -73% of women gave the highest shock possible -65% of men gave the highest shock possible -women seemed unemotional towards the comments of the person they were shocking -Women were more likely to just comply to the experimenters direction Discussion in the video: -Well aren’t we supposed to just do what we are told? -When asked why they kept shocking the person, some volunteers put blame on the learner (person getting shocked) because that person volunteered and knew what they were signing up for. Standford Experiment -jail simulation experiment -The guards wore sunglasses so the prisoners could not see their eye -this was described as loss of humanity -After just 2 days there was a rebellion in the prison -guards could treat the prisoners however they wanted -woke up them up in the night, made them clean toilets with their hands -one prisoner told others that no one could get out and even though they knew it was an experiment, they started going crazy because they believed they really could not leave. -inhumane experiment
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