New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Criminology Chapter 3 Notes

by: Amelia Hernandez

Criminology Chapter 3 Notes 1300

Marketplace > Tulane University > Sociology > 1300 > Criminology Chapter 3 Notes
Amelia Hernandez
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document

Professor Hall

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Get these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Criminology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Criminology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Notes from the textbook reading
Professor Hall
Class Notes
sociology, criminology




Popular in Criminology

Popular in Sociology

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Hernandez on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300 at Tulane University taught by Professor Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.


Reviews for Criminology Chapter 3 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/01/16
CRIMINOLOGY CHAPTER 3 THE MEASUREMENT AND PATTERNING OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Uniform Crime Reports done by the FBI Started in the 1930s Primary source of US crime statistics I massive data collection from most of the nation s police precincts The most extensive reporting is done of Part 1 offenses Part I O enses The crimes that the FBI considers to be most serious Homicide rape robbery and aggravated assault Classified as violent crimes Burglary larceny motor vehicle theft and arson Property crime Part2 O enses fraud and embezzlement vandalism prostitution gambling disorderly conduct weapons etc 0 FBI reports the number of part 1 crimes that occurred the previous year by state and major city and they also report the number of crimes cleared by arrest and age race gender 0 Arson is not included in the UCR 0 FBI only reports the number of people arrested for part 2 offenses How a crime becomes o icial typically a crime only becomes known to the police if the victim reports it 60 of victims of violent and property crimes don t report The police only discover 34 of crimes themselves I this makes the UCR data somewhat unreliable I unless the victim IDs the offender or the police catch them in the act there will probably not be an arrest Critique of U CR data 1 Underestimation of the amount of crime 2 Diversion of attention from white collar crimes 3 Misleading data on the characteristics of arrestees 4 Citizens reporting of crime is sometimes unlikely 5 Police recording practices and scandals sometimes the police will want it to look like there is more crime than there actually is because it would mean more funding and job security 6 Different Definitions of Crimes 7 School Reporting Practices some might think schools underreport things like rape because they want to look good NIBRS National Incident Based Reporting System will eventually replace the UCR This report will include more information like relationships between criminals and their drug use Calls to the Police some people think taking all the calls that come into the police should be the recorded data because not all calls make it into police records but it would be a more accurate description of types of crime NC VS National Crime Victimization Survey includes the context of crime the characteristics of the victims the relationship the victim had to the offender I Randomly selected households get the survey every six months for a period of three years I survey asks about aggravated and simple assault rape and sexual assault robbery burglary various kinds of larcenies motor vehicle theft Homicide and arson are excluded as are part 2 crimes and commercial crimes I has a much better estimate of the number of crimes than the UCR because the sample is so large I the info on the criminals and victims makes theories on victimization much more accurate I the NCVS does underestimates some crimes because of all the ones it excludes also people might not answer truthfully It can overestimate other crimes because some people might mistake noncriminal events as crime Self Report Studies tend to focus on minor crimes and are often given to high school students I some research says that African American youths are more likely to underreport offending Recent Trends in US Crime Rates 0 Crime rates rose during the 1960s and 70s before declining in the 80s and rising again in the late 80s 0 After 1990 crime rates start to fall every year fast at first and then slowly Patterning Crime rates change according to location seasonclimate and demographic factors like gender race class Geographical Patterns 0 US has the highest homicide rate of any western democratic nation 0 Crime rates can possibly attributed to culture For example Japan values harmony and are expected to be peaceable and respectful of authority Their crime rates are somewhat low 0 The south and west of the US have the highest crime rates Seasonal and Climatological Variations violent crime is usually higher in warmer months 0 Summer can cause increased temper we interact more with each other in summer so more opportunities for violent behavior to start are possible There are more empty homes in summer Gender and Crime 0 Men account for 80 of violent crime and 63 of property crime arrests Police bias may have something to do with this less threatened by women 0 Cesare L0mbr0s0 attributed women s low criminality to their natural passivity 0 Freud s followers thought women commit crime because of penis envy 0 Masculine traits are more aggressive than typical female traits 0 Parent s usually monitor a girl s actions more so they have less opportunity to commit crime 0 Girls also create stronger bonds so they are more attached to their parents and feel more likely to follow their values 0 Girls have fewer ties to delinquent peers They are less vulnerable to negative in uences Race Ethnicity and Crime 0 Most criminals are white 0 African Americans commit a disproportionate number of crime relative to their numbers in the population They also have higher street crime rates 0 Some people say African Americans show higher rates of violence because they are most likely to be in communities with higher poverty levels unemployment family disruption and residential instability 0 Similar picture painted for Latinos 0 Immigrants have relatively low rates of crime These neighborhoods have strong social institutions and stable employment Immigrant crime rates rise the longer they ve been in the US Social Class and Crime 0 Most people arrested are poorly educated with low incomes Most don t have a high school diploma 0 However this just accounts for street crime Middle and upper class people are more likely to commit white collar crimes So there may not be much of a difference between the amounts of crime between lower and upper class Age and Crime Street crime is mostly committed by young people peer in uences financial resources and immaturity could be reasons that young people commit more crimes Older people commit whitecollar crime 0 African American men between 1824 have the highest crime rates White woman 25 and older have the lowest rates Chronic O enders often continue their offending into adulthood Career criminality is more common of the urban underclass people with low education and bleak job prospects


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.