Criminology Chapter 3 Notes
Criminology Chapter 3 Notes 1300
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Hernandez on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300 at Tulane University taught by Professor Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
CRIMINOLOGY CHAPTER 3 THE MEASUREMENT AND PATTERNING OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Uniform Crime Reports done by the FBI Started in the 1930s Primary source of US crime statistics I massive data collection from most of the nation s police precincts The most extensive reporting is done of Part 1 offenses Part I O enses The crimes that the FBI considers to be most serious Homicide rape robbery and aggravated assault Classified as violent crimes Burglary larceny motor vehicle theft and arson Property crime Part2 O enses fraud and embezzlement vandalism prostitution gambling disorderly conduct weapons etc 0 FBI reports the number of part 1 crimes that occurred the previous year by state and major city and they also report the number of crimes cleared by arrest and age race gender 0 Arson is not included in the UCR 0 FBI only reports the number of people arrested for part 2 offenses How a crime becomes o icial typically a crime only becomes known to the police if the victim reports it 60 of victims of violent and property crimes don t report The police only discover 34 of crimes themselves I this makes the UCR data somewhat unreliable I unless the victim IDs the offender or the police catch them in the act there will probably not be an arrest Critique of U CR data 1 Underestimation of the amount of crime 2 Diversion of attention from white collar crimes 3 Misleading data on the characteristics of arrestees 4 Citizens reporting of crime is sometimes unlikely 5 Police recording practices and scandals sometimes the police will want it to look like there is more crime than there actually is because it would mean more funding and job security 6 Different Definitions of Crimes 7 School Reporting Practices some might think schools underreport things like rape because they want to look good NIBRS National Incident Based Reporting System will eventually replace the UCR This report will include more information like relationships between criminals and their drug use Calls to the Police some people think taking all the calls that come into the police should be the recorded data because not all calls make it into police records but it would be a more accurate description of types of crime NC VS National Crime Victimization Survey includes the context of crime the characteristics of the victims the relationship the victim had to the offender I Randomly selected households get the survey every six months for a period of three years I survey asks about aggravated and simple assault rape and sexual assault robbery burglary various kinds of larcenies motor vehicle theft Homicide and arson are excluded as are part 2 crimes and commercial crimes I has a much better estimate of the number of crimes than the UCR because the sample is so large I the info on the criminals and victims makes theories on victimization much more accurate I the NCVS does underestimates some crimes because of all the ones it excludes also people might not answer truthfully It can overestimate other crimes because some people might mistake noncriminal events as crime Self Report Studies tend to focus on minor crimes and are often given to high school students I some research says that African American youths are more likely to underreport offending Recent Trends in US Crime Rates 0 Crime rates rose during the 1960s and 70s before declining in the 80s and rising again in the late 80s 0 After 1990 crime rates start to fall every year fast at first and then slowly Patterning Crime rates change according to location seasonclimate and demographic factors like gender race class Geographical Patterns 0 US has the highest homicide rate of any western democratic nation 0 Crime rates can possibly attributed to culture For example Japan values harmony and are expected to be peaceable and respectful of authority Their crime rates are somewhat low 0 The south and west of the US have the highest crime rates Seasonal and Climatological Variations violent crime is usually higher in warmer months 0 Summer can cause increased temper we interact more with each other in summer so more opportunities for violent behavior to start are possible There are more empty homes in summer Gender and Crime 0 Men account for 80 of violent crime and 63 of property crime arrests Police bias may have something to do with this less threatened by women 0 Cesare L0mbr0s0 attributed women s low criminality to their natural passivity 0 Freud s followers thought women commit crime because of penis envy 0 Masculine traits are more aggressive than typical female traits 0 Parent s usually monitor a girl s actions more so they have less opportunity to commit crime 0 Girls also create stronger bonds so they are more attached to their parents and feel more likely to follow their values 0 Girls have fewer ties to delinquent peers They are less vulnerable to negative in uences Race Ethnicity and Crime 0 Most criminals are white 0 African Americans commit a disproportionate number of crime relative to their numbers in the population They also have higher street crime rates 0 Some people say African Americans show higher rates of violence because they are most likely to be in communities with higher poverty levels unemployment family disruption and residential instability 0 Similar picture painted for Latinos 0 Immigrants have relatively low rates of crime These neighborhoods have strong social institutions and stable employment Immigrant crime rates rise the longer they ve been in the US Social Class and Crime 0 Most people arrested are poorly educated with low incomes Most don t have a high school diploma 0 However this just accounts for street crime Middle and upper class people are more likely to commit white collar crimes So there may not be much of a difference between the amounts of crime between lower and upper class Age and Crime Street crime is mostly committed by young people peer in uences financial resources and immaturity could be reasons that young people commit more crimes Older people commit whitecollar crime 0 African American men between 1824 have the highest crime rates White woman 25 and older have the lowest rates Chronic O enders often continue their offending into adulthood Career criminality is more common of the urban underclass people with low education and bleak job prospects