Evolution and Genetics
Evolution and Genetics ANTH 1102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Evolution and Genetics • Evolution is the process of gradual transformation within biological populations over successive generations, also known as descent with modification o Not simply man coming from monkey o Process of gradual transformation o Scientific fact, not a theory o Change in the inherited methods, looks, and genes over time o Helps to adopt greater reproductive success o We are the last surviving members of the genus: homo – lucky to be here • Classification of Living Things – Charles von Linne (Linneaus) o Characterizing animals according to individual characteristics o Classified living things into species based on § Overall similarities § The ability of animals to interbreed o Viewed the differences between life forms as part of the Creator’s unchanging, orderly plan o “species” is based on members being able to reproduce o classification levels • The Discovery of Evolution o Uniformitarianism: the belief that natural forces shaping the world today also explain past events § Necessary building block for evolution theory o Thought that all existed since the beginning of the universe o Creationist: according to the bible, the world was made in 6 days o What about the animals that no longer exist? Floor, fire? § Creationists and others disagree § Many views: mythical ancestors, creationism, science/natural theory, the earth diver myth, hole in the sky, etc. o The Principles of Biology § Written by Herbert Spencer § Understanding the present can help us understand the past • Rainfalls, volcanoes, etc. • Natural forces modified geological features over a long period of time o Challenged: what if its past 6000 year ago? The Bible says the world was made later than science o Natural Selection § Charles Darwin (naturalist) • On the Origin of Species published 1859 • Natural Selection: selection favored biological forms through differential reproductive success § 2 people hit on notions at the same time • Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace • Darwin published it first § “Survival of the Fittest” – Herbert Spencer § Darwin and Wallace wrote paper together • Principle: all organisms have variation and are able to expand within range of variation o Advantages in some environments § Survive due to greater change at reproduction § In the “struggle for existence” individuals with advantageous variations will do better than those without them • Horses with long neck become giraffes • The peppered moth changed over time to adapt to a changing environment in UK o Country: moths are white to blend in with light trees o City: moths are black to blend in with pollution o Very quick change § “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change” – Charles Darwin § people used to hold onto the idea that species were on a hierarchy with the more perfect at the top: man at the top because we are closer to God • NO – we just better adapted § Why do apes still exist if we’re here? • We don’t evolve from apes • Common ancestor with living primates 10 million years ago, but we ended on different branch of family § Selects for existing variation • Mutations do not just randomly occur; organisms have genes and then express that gene as a way to adapt § Genotype: the genetic makeup or constitution of an organism – biological “building blocks” • based on biological molecular building blocks; chromosomes, etc. • cannot be seen by the naked eye, only its expression… § Phenotype: the physical expression of biological characteristics – part genetic, part adaptation to environmental forces • Shaped by adaptation to environmental forces – plasticity § You can only adapt as permitted by genotype • Ex. Height o Genotype will allow height o Phenotype may vary due to nutrition as a child – plasticity varies • Biology and Evolution: The Basics o DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid § Genetic material § A complex molecule that contains information that can direct the synthesis of proteins § DNA molecules can produce exact copies of themselves § Tells cells what to do/what to make with basic chemical building block of life – proteins § Phosphates, sugars and base pairs of nucleotides § Unzipping on central axis – each side remakes the other • One DNA strand can make two, and so on o you have on side from mom and one side from dad o Genes: portion of DNA molecules that do the actual directing of the synthesis of proteins § Proteins do almost everything in the body: heart beat, digestion, hair, etc. § Correspond to certain biological traits • Eye color, hair, hair on fingers, rolling tongue (or double rolling), number of limbs, blood type, genetic conditions, etc. o Genome: the complete sequence of DNA for a species § Complete sequence of A, G, T, and C’s to make up traits § Machines can generate genomes • Where are they located and how can we see them o Chromosome: § Double helix § Genes coiled tightly to make chromosome § DNA combines with protein to form chromosomes § Inherited from both parents § 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human being • Genetic Variation – Why? o Copying mistakes during division, purely by change o Errors/mistakes/mutations create tiny differences § Some are disadvantageous § Some make possible to adapt to new and changing environments § Speed varies and depends on circumstances • Slow: giraffes • Fast: moths o Mutation: the ultimate source of evolutionary change is the mutation of genes through errons in the copying of DNA o Allele: a variant of a particular gene § Dominant (G) § Recessive (g) § Expressed in phenotype § Ex. Brown is the dominant allele for eye color and blue is recessive. • BB = brown • Bb = brown • Bb = blue § Both parents give on allele • Population genetics o Concept of the population § A group of individuals within which breeding takes place § Natural selection takes place within the population § This is the level at which evolutionary change occurs o Gene pool § The genetic variants available to a population o Natural selection and adaptation are no the only changing methods • Evolutionary Forces o Sources of change § Mutation: change alteration that produces a new gene • 2 alleles that accumulate slowly over time and produce new genes § Genetic Drift: change fluctuations in the gene pool • Change fluctuations • Allele frequency changes § Gene Flow: introduction of new alleles from nearby populations • New allele and genetic material from nearby populations § Natural Selection: adaptation • Fast or slow • Evolutionary Scale o Microevolution: genetic changes in a population over several or many generations, does not result in new species o Macroevolution: larger-scale or more significant changes that occur over a long time period which result in speciation • Punctuated Equilibrium o Certain events can cause rapid and dramatic change o There may also be long period of time with little significant change o Long periods of time in the history of a species where there is little variation/change o Gradualism does not exist, but may have punctuated leaps o Dramatic events o Chance – why we are so lucky to be here o Certain events can cause rapid and dramatic change § Ex. meteor that killed the dinosaurs
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