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Ch 1

by: Hailey
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About this Document

Notes over chapter 1
Class Notes




Popular in Victimology

Popular in Criminal Justice

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 312 at Ball State University taught by nickoli in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Victimology in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Victimology Notes – January 13, 2016 Chapter 1  History o Victim was focal point of the system o It was their responsibility to receive some level of justice & if victim couldn’t then the family took care of it o Took matter into their own hands o Core: lex talionis  punishment = crime, eye for an eye  Victim is still focal point & involved  Code of Hammurabi  first written code of conduct.  It established citizens’ obligations.  Protection for the weak  Equity restoration – goal of trying to make things right between both parties. We needed to get things back to where they were before as much as possible. o System/victim downfall: Middle Ages  Laying claim of compensation  Redefinition of criminal acts  This is where the victim was no longer the center of the system, it now became the states justice instead of the victims. o 1940s: victim again took the stage  Questioning of actions  In terms of rape on woman, women would be questioned about their role, whether they deserved it, etc. o What is victimology?  Creation of typologies  Scholars o Hans von Hentig  German scholar  “What makes a victim a victim?”  Victim was a contributor to the crime  May not have been a conscious contributor, not know they are contributing  Underlying causes: victim played a role  Certain characteristics/social positions played a role o Typologies:  Child: defenseless, weak, lack physical ability to fight back  Females: body type, how she looks, not as physically imposing o Benjamin Mendelsohn  “Father of victimology”  Not only wanted to look at victim but also offender  Wanted to look at the relationship between victim & offender  Found their was a strong interpersonal relationship  Classification system based on degree of blame o To what degree do we blame the victim for this offense  what were they doing, why were they in this situation, etc.  Developed term: victimology o Stephan Schafer  Functional responsibility  How much responsibility does the victim bare for the incident  Classification based on responsibility o Provoking, instigating, starting etc.  Functional role of victim? o Do nothing to provoke others o Don’t put yourself in the position when you don’t know the actions the other person will take o Marvin Wolfgang  Factors  Victim & offender had prior relationship  Homicide result of small disagreement  Alcohol consumption by victim o Makes them more vulnerable o Makes them potentially more provoking o Menachem Amir  Forcible rape – 19% victim precipitated  Factors:  Alcohol  Seductive actions by victims  Wearing revealing clothing  Offender could misread the victim  Victim isn’t always innocent  “Issues” with scholarly thought o Criminal acts can be explained by victim behavior  Behavior isn’t enough o Offenders respond to victims signals  Ignores offender planning o Victim behavior triggers commission  Offenders commit despite behavior o Victim intent is measured by victimization  System determines offenders guilt o Offenders are the same 


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