Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes PSY 151
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patrece Savino on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Drugs and Behavior Effects of Drugs on Synaptic Transmission (see diagrams in the book) o Drugs that affect thoughts, perceptions, emotions, and behavior affect the activity of neurons in the brain Communication between neurons involves the release of neurotransmitters either excite or inhibit the activity of the post synaptic cell o Drugs can: Stimulate or inhibit the release of neurotransmitters on postsynaptic receptors Some drugs stimulate certain terminal buttons to release neurotransmitter continuously, even when the axon is not firing Block these effects Neurotransmitters produce their effects by stimulating postsynaptic receptors excites or inhibits the postsynaptic neurons by opening their ion channels & permitting ions to enter or leave the neurons Some drugs mimic the effects of particular neurons by directly stimulating particular kinds of receptors even when the neurotransmitter is not present Other drugs block these receptors, making them inaccessible to the neurotransmitter and thus inhibiting synaptic transmission Or interfere with the reuptake of a neurotransmitter once its released Molecules of the neurotransmitter are released by a terminal button, stimulate the receptors in the postsynaptic membrane, and are then taken back into the terminal button Some drugs inhibit this process so that molecules of the neurotransmitter continue to stimulate the postsynaptic receptors for a long time o INCREASES the effect of the neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters, their actions, and drugs that affect them o Most synaptic activity in the brain is accomplished by two neurotransmitters: glutamate & GABA Glutamate – the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord With the exception of painful stimuli, all sensory organs transmit information to the brain through axons whose terminals release glutamate NMDA receptor (one type of glutamate receptor) plays role in effects of environmental stimulation on the developing brain and is also responsible for many of the changes in synaptic connections that are responsible for learning o Partially deactivated by alcohol blackouts/no memory GABA – the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Barbiturates – a drug that causes sedation; one of several derivatives of barbituric acid o in low doses, barbiturates have calming effects o in progressively higher doses, they produce difficulty in walking, talking, unconsciousness, coma, and death Ethyl alcohol – most commonly used depressant drug; active ingredient in alcoholic beverages o Acts on the GABA receptor o Effects of alcohol and barbiturates are additive: moderate dose of alcohol plus moderate dose of barbiturates can be fatal Antianxiety drugs – a “tranquilizer,” which reduces anxiety o Members of a family known as benzodiazepines – a class of drug having anxiolytic (“tranquilizing”) effects, such as diazepam (Valium); much safer than barbiturates o Act on the GABA receptor on neurons in various parts of the brain, including region involved in fear and anxiety Acetylcholine (ACh) – a neurotransmitter found in the brain, spinal cord, and parts of the peripheral nervous system; responsible for muscular contraction three systems have received the most attention from neuroscientists: o one system activates the brain mechanisms responsible for REM sleep – the phase where most dreaming occurs o one is involved in activating neurons in the cerebral cortex and facilitating learning, especially perceptual learning o third system controls the functions of another part of the brain involved in learning: the hippocampus Botulinum toxin – a drug that prevents the release of acetylcholine by terminal buttons o Extremely potent poison o Very dilute solutions are used for botox Black widow spider venom – a drug that stimulates the release of acetylcholine by terminal buttons o much less toxic than botulinum toxin neostigmine – a drug that enhances the effects of acetylcholine by blocking the enzyme that destroys it nicotine – the best known drug that affects acetylcholine receptors; a drug that binds with and stimulates acetylcholine receptors, mimicking the effects of this neurotransmitter curare – a drug that binds with and blocks acetylcholine receptors, mimicking the effects of this neurotransmitter; causes paralysis o fast effects; used to paralyze patients who are to undergo surgery so that their muscles will relax completely Monoamines – a category of neurotransmitters that include dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin the monoamines are produced by several systems of neurons in the brain, most of which consist of a small number of cell bodies located in the brain stem, whose axons branch repeatedly and give rise to many terminal buttons distributed throughout many regions of the brain o increases or decreases the activities of particular brain functions Dopamine – a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in control of brain mechanisms of movement and reinforcement o Involved in schizophrenia, parkinson’s o Cocaine mimics dopamine reduces your own production of dopamine and when you stop the cocaine you then have withdrawal Parkinson’s Disease – a neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity of limbs, poor balance, and difficulty initiating movements; caused by degeneration of system of dopaminesecreting neurons o Disorder of the basal ganglia Norepinephrine – a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in alertness and vigilance and control of REM sleep Serotonin – a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of mood; in the control of eating, sleep, and arousal; and in the regulation of pain o A deficiency in serotonin in cerebral cortex may be responsible for alcoholism and antisocial behavior o Serotonin drugs used to treat depression, anxiety, and OCD o Prevents reuptake to prolong effects to treat disorders LSD – lysergic acid diethylamide; a hallucinogenic drug that blocks a category of serotonin receptors o Interacts with serotonergic transmission o Extremely small doses stimulate one category of serotonin receptor Peptides Neuromodulator – a substance secreted in the brain that modulates the activity of neurons that contain the appropriate receptors o as they diffuse through the brain they can activate or inhibit circuits of neurons that control a variety of functions/behaviors Peptide – a category of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that consist of two or more amino acids, linked by peptide bonds Endogenous opioid – a neuromodulator whose action is mimicked by a natural or synthetic opiate, such as opium, morphine, or heroin o one of the best known families of peptides o reduce pain because of direct effects on the brain o decreased sensitivity to pain and persistence in ongoing behavior o people abuse opiates because they cause the release of dopamine in the brain reinforcing effect on behavior (and the effect can lead to addiction) o naloxone – a drug that binds with and blocks opioid receptors, preventing opiate drugs or endogenous opioids from exerting their effects used to help drug addicts Cannabinoids Principal active ingredient = THC which affects perception and behavior by activating receptors located on neurons in the brain THC mimics the effects of endogenous cannabinoids – chemicals produced and released in the brain & disrupts short term memory THC produces analgesia and sedation, stimulates appetite, reduces nausea caused by drugs used to treat cancer, relieves asthma attacks, decreases pressure within the eyes in patients with glaucoma, reduces the symptoms of certain motor disorders Anandamide – the most important endogenous cannabinoid Cannabinoids are found on terminal buttons that secrete glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, dopamine, neorepinephrine, and serotonin **SEE CHART P. 101 Study of the Brain o Experimental Ablation Pierre Flourens developed the method of experimental ablation and Paul Broca applied it (see Ch. 1) To study effect of experimental brain disruption on animal behavior brain lesion Brain lesion – damage to a particular region of the brain Study with animals and people with brain damage Stereotaxic apparatus – a device used to insert an electrode into a particular part of the brain for the purpose of recording electrical activity, stimulating the brain electrically, or producing localized damage (diagram page 102) Experimenters can produce electrolytic lesions by passing an electrical current through the electrode, which produces heat destroying a small portion of the brain Excitotxic lesions by injecting a chemical through the cannula that overstimulates neurons in that region around the tip and kills the neurons o Visualizing the Structure of the Brain CT Scanner – a device that uses a special xray machine and a computer to produce images of the brain that appear as slices taken parallel to the top of the skull Often called a CAT scanner (A for axial) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – a technique with a device that uses the interaction between radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce images of slices of the interior of the body Because different molecules take different times to recover from the magnetic force, an image can be constructed that distinguishes between different materials (gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid) Higher resolution that CT scanners Brain is passively doing something o Measuring the Brain’s Activity (waves) Microelectrode – a thin electrode made of wire or glass that can measure the electrical activity of a single neuron can be used to measure the minute electrical charges of individual action potentials Electroencephalogram (EEG) – an electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on the scalp Can be used to diagnose seizure disorders or monitor stages of sleep Measures brain waves through microelectrodes Magnetoencephalography (MEG) – a method of brain study that measures the changes in magnetic fields that accompany action potentials in the cerebral cortex can be used to find brain abnormalities that produce seizures so they can be removed surgically Positron emission tomography (PET) – the use of a device that reveals the localization of a radioactive tracer in a living brain when radioactive molecules decay emit positrons (subatomic particles) inject radioactive chemical that accumulates in the brain put head under PET scanner detect positrons reveals brain regions that are most actie Functional MRI (fMRI) – a modification of the MRI procedure that permits the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain by detecting levels of oxygen in the brain’s blood vessels Brain is actively doing something o Stimulating the Brain’s Activity Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) – direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex induced by magnetic fields generated outside the skull Induces electrical current in the brain tissue uses a coil of wires arranged in the shape of number 8 to stimulate neurons in the human cerebral cortex disrupts a person’s ability to detect movements in visual stimuli confirm results of lesion studies of people with brain damage Figure 4.21 on page 105 stimulator on dopamine part of the brain and it learns to press the lever for electrical stimulation of the reward center o Altering Genetics Targeted mutation – a mutated gene produced in the lab and inserted into the chromosomes of mice; abolishes the normal effects of the gene o Neural plasticity and Neurogenesis Neural Plasticity – the production of changes in the structure and functions of the nervous system, induced by environmental events Ventricular Zone – a layer of cells that line the inside of the neural tube; contains founder cells that divide and give rise to cells of the central nervous system Stem cell – an undifferentiated cell that can divide and produce any one of a variety of differentiated cells Apoptosis – death of a cell caused by a chemical signal that activates a genetic mechanism inside the cell Neurogenesis – the process responsible for the production of a new neuron Control of Behavior and the Body’s Physiological Functions Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Figure 4.24 Page 109 o Central fissure – the fissure that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe o Frontal lobe – the front position of the cerebral cortex, including the prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex; damage impairs movement, planning, and flexibility in behavioral strategies o Parietal lobe – the region of the cerebral cortex behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobe; contains the somatosensory cortex; is involved in spatial perception and memory o Temporal lobe – the portion of the cerebral cortex below the frontal and parietal lobes; contains the auditory cortex o Occipital lobe – the rearmost portion of the cerebral cortex; contains the primary visual cortex o Regions of Primary Sensory and Motor Cortex Primary visual cortex – the region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the visual system; located in the occipital lobes Primary auditory cortex – the region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the auditory system; located in the temporal lobes Primary somatosensory cortex – the region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the somatosensory system (touch, pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature); located in the front part of the parietal lobes Contralateral – residing in the side of the body opposite the reference point Ipsilateral – residing in the same side of the reference point Primary motor cortex – the region of the cerebral cortex that directly controls the movements of the body; located in the posterior part of the frontal lobes p. 110 vis cortex damage term paper ed ch 4 bio of be ppt
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