Anthropology 101: Week 3 Notes
Anthropology 101: Week 3 Notes Anthropology 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Gonzales on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 101 at Washington State University taught by Cara Monroe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Anthropology 101 Notes: Week 3 Since our species’ origin, human populations have expanded and diversified o Human morphology (shape of body and body parts) varies o Human physiology (how we look) varies o Human behavior (how we act) varies Humans are genetically very similar to each other Diversity can result from genetic or environmental differences o Genetic variation Differences from parents because of a mutation o Environmental variation o Differences caused by environmental factors (where you live, what resources are available to you, etc.) o Differences caused by culture (beliefs, traditions, etc.) o Complex traits are created because of an interaction between environment and genetics Variation can occur within groups or between groups Some variation among humans are simple genetic differences Definition: Simple Mendelian Inheritance is when certain traits can show variable levels of penetrance and/or may be coded for by multiple genes. o Ex: Can roll your tongue, free vs. attached earlobe Variation within a population Different variations include: o Mutation o Balanced polymorphism/selection Mutation o Generates random variation o Many genetic diseases caused by mutations Ex: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs o Mutation maintains deleterious genes only at low levels Mutation introduces bad genes Selection removes the bad genes Variation Among Groups Natural selection = different environment = different traits o Gene flow homogenizes populations o If selection is strong, genetic variation is maintained or fixed o Natural selection may contribute to some genetic variation among human groups Ex: lactose absorption, skin color Skin color varies among humans o If humans live closer to the equator, they tend to have naturally darker skin o Sunlight is necessary for human survival, yet it can also be extremely harmful Darker skin adaptations include: o Sunlight reduces folate levels Folate is a DNA synthesis which influences cell and sperm production Folate deficits in pregnant women can lead to Spina Bifida Increased sun exposer leads to darker skin Some exceptions to general patterns are informative o Innit people have darker skin for their geographical location They recently migrated to North America, where they don’t necessarily need the dark skin that they had acquired for where they previously lived Race and Racial Thinking Three common assumptions about race: 1. Human species fall neatly into discrete categories 2. Members of different races are biologically different in important ways 3. Differences between races are due to biological inheritance All three of these assumptions are wrong o They all ignore the complexity of human variation o Race is a social construct that has changed throughout history Spanish Colonial Americans were categorized by their ancestry Race as a “Social Construct” In the 19 century, “race” was a defining category o They believed that race was a biological category, and you could be born into a specific race, which we now understand today is untrue o Race was determined not only by skin color, but also by fundamental capacities In 1870, American Indian and Chinese were added as a “racial” type By the 1890’s, biological “precision” led to more “racial” categories o Scientists equated culture with ethnicity and race There is little concordance between genetic traits and racial categories o In Brazil, people are categorized by their “color” Color was assessed by Brazilians by the following categories: skin color, hair type, nose shape, and lip type o Classifications of race were based on phenotype not descent, so that lead to a dramatic different in what people could look like, even within the same family. Based on this, siblings could be classified differently if they had different shapes of phenotypic traits How are modern groups related? Most genetic variation is in Africa, and variation outside Africa is a subset of that found in Africa African genetic make-up is more different from one another than from sequences on other continents o This means that the genetic variation differs more greatly within a population than outside of a population 4% - 5% of genetic markers (mutations) come from outside of Africa Differences within a population makes up 85% - 95% of all total genetic variation for that species o Differences among groups account for 5% - 15% of total variation Racial categories are not natural biological entities o Biological species are often natural units They have discrete boundaries There are few intermediate cases o Racial groups are not natural units They are based on an arbitrary set of traits There are many intermediate cases Categorizations based on different traits produce different groupings People who live near each other tend to be similar genetically, but there are no sharp boundaries Human Genome Project When the Clinton administration originally announced that they were going to look for the genetic makeup of a human and try to decode the genetic sequence, it cost $2.7 billion dollars for the first whole genome o Today, it costs an individual $1,000 to get their entire genome. While this may be considered costly to many, it has gone down significantly in price, mostly because of the technology that is now available Scientists are still missing information with this project, as they have gotten nowhere near the entire world’s genomes discovered, and many populations do not want to be tested, so they will never be able to create those samples Definition: SNP’s are a single mutation o Scientists can vary the number of SNP’s that they test in an individual (anywhere from 400,000 – 1 million) o They have identified about 15 million SNP’s in human genome out of a possible 3 billion o Markers may be under selective pressure, so they do not come out until they are forced Criminal Investigation DNA has just recently been used to help police with crime scenes o DNA can be degraded, contaminated, or inhibited, which all hinder it from being entirely useful in determining whether or not a specific person is guilty Markers for Human ID If police are trying to identify an exact human being, they need the genetic markers to be not under selection and unlimited, so they can test them over and over again o They are trying to not determine population structure so that they do not find ancestral backgrounds, they are simply looking for any DNA markers The Living Primates Similarities between human and non-human primates are the evolutionary roots of humans are our behavior Primates are very diverse both physically and behaviorally o These differences can inform us about human uniqueness The diverse order includes: physiology, subsistence, social ecology, and mating systems Primate Features All primates have certain features which allow us to categorize them: Hand-Limb Dominated Locomotion and Erect Posture o This allows them to sit, leap, stand, and occasionally use bipedal walking Grasping Hands and Feet/Thumbs o This allows them to hold on to trees/branches and use their hands as tools Primate Hands generally have: o Opposable Thumbs o Fleshy material with thumbs o Fingernails instead of claws Forward facing eyes o This allows for depth perception (good for hunting) o Color vision is possible (allows them to see colors of food resources) Reduced Reliance on Smell o Reduced prognathism (not having a long snout) They rely mostly on their eyes to hunt, as most primates are not nocturnal Post-Orbital Bar o A bar surrounding the whole eye socket This is beneficial because it takes away the reflection of light in their eyes and allows for a better color scheme Retention of Clavicle o Allows for semi- or full-breakeation (their arm socket allows them to make a circle or at least a semi-circle in the air) Definition: Encephalization is when an animal has a larger brain relative to their body size Long Juvenile Period o They have longer juvenile periods which allows their brains to grow longer, making them focused on things other than just reproduction and survival Prosimians (Strepsirhini) They are found in Africa, India, SE Asia, and especially Madagascar o This species of primate includes Lemurs and Lohreses They have extremely primitive traits which means that they have ancestral or older traits that we look back on now to identify where a certain species came from o Primitive traits are traits that are retained from an ancestral species Primitive in this situation doesn’t mean inferior or bad, it simply means they were traits passed on by generations above them They have Hand-Limb locomotion, which allows them to grasp onto trees and swing from branches They also have Adaptive Radiation o This means that they are able to adapt to a wide variety of places and create sub-species within the larger species Ex: huge diversity of Lemurs on the island of Madagascar All Prosimians have a grooming claw, or “toilet claw” which allows them to groom themselves easier They all have an unfused mandible, tooth comb, and only three molars o All of these are examples of primitive traits Definition: Rhinarium is when an animal is wet-nosed, which all of the Prosimians are Definition: Tapetum Lucidum is when they have a reflecting retina which is beneficial for night vision Tarsiers They were originally lumped in with Prosimians o However, their DNA shows that they don’t really fit in there or with the Haplorhines, they are just in the middle o They have a mix of primitive and derived traits Haplorhines/Anthropoids Include Old/New World monkeys and Apes o Apes include Gorillas, Chimps, Orangutan, Humans, and Gibbons) o They have an increasingly reduced snout, along with the post- orbital bar becoming completely fused around the socket o They also have a plate separating their eyes from the front of their head Key Haplorhini Traits They are diurnal which means that they are awake during the daytime They do not have a wet nose, or a reflective eye They have an increased reliance on sight New World Monkeys (Platyerhini) Traits include: o Outward facing nostrils o May have multiple mates o Tail structure leads to tree-living o Semi-brachiation which allows for at least a semi-circle to be made by their arm sockets when they swing from tree to tree o Fruit eaters o Dental pattern: 3 pre-molars instead of 2 like Old-World Monkeys Mainly located in Central/South Americas Old World Monkeys (Catarrhini) Traits include: o Downward-facing nostrils o Only 2 pre-molars o Definition: Diastema is a gap between their teeth This occurs because they have extremely long incisors, so their mouth would be too crowded if they did not have a gap
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