CHEM 1040 Chapter 13
CHEM 1040 Chapter 13 CHEM 1040
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah B. on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1040 at Auburn University taught by Ria Astrid Yngard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry II in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions Solutions: homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances; the solute is uniformly dispersed throughout the solvent if the solvent is H2O then the solution is aqueous solution = solute + solvent unsaturated solution: contains less solute than the solvent has the capacity to dissolve at a speciﬁc temperature saturated solution: contains the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a solvent at a speciﬁc temperature solubility:amount of solute dissolved in a given volume of a saturated solution at a speciﬁc temperature supersaturated solution: contains more dissolved solute than is present in a saturated solution and are generally unstable Solution Formation Process: solvation: solute molecules separated from each other and surrounded by solvent molecules depends on interactions: solute-solute, solvent-solvent, solute-solvent Energy Changes in Solution Formation: Solute-Solvent Interactions: “like dissolves like” polar substances tend to dissolve in polar solvents non polar substances tend to dissolve in non polar solvents miscible: mixing in all proportions immiscible, if not methanol is miscible with water but hexanol is almost insoluble in water. why? answer: methanol is polar but hexanol is almost non polar Concentration Units: molarity: M = moles of solute/liters of solution temperature dependent molality: m = moles of solute/mass of solvent (kg) temperature independent mole fraction A: Xa = moles of A/sum of moles of all components percent by mass = (mass of solute/(mass of solute + mass of solvent)) x 100% temperature independent parts per million: ppm = (mass of solute/total mass of solution) x 10^6 parts per billion: ppb = (mass of solute/total mass of solution) x 10^p Factors Affecting Solubility: structure: “like dissolves like”, temperature, pressure Temperature Effects on Solubility: gases in water: solubility goes down as temperature goes up solid solutes in water: generally solubility goes up as temperature goes up if point is above line on graph it’s saturated, if point it below line on graph it’s unsaturated Pressure Effects on Solubility: solubility of solids and liquids is hardly affected solubility of gases increases with pressure Henry’s Law: the solubility of gas in liquid is proportional to pressure of gas over solution. c = kP c: molar concentration of dissolved gas (mol/L) k: Henry’s Law gas constant (mol/L-atm) P: pressure of gas over solution (atm) what pressure of CO2 is required to keep the CO2 concentration in a bottle of club soda at 0.12M at 25C? kco2 at 25C = 3.4 x 10^-2 mol/L-atm answer: 3.5 atm Colligative Properties: properties that depend on the number of solute particles in a solution vapor-pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, osmotic pressure V apor-Pressure Lowering: (nonelectrolyte solutions) Rault’s Law: solution containing a non-volatile solute P1 = partial pressure of solvent above the solution X1 = mole fraction of solvent in the solution Po = vapor pressure of the pure solvent OR: P = decrease in vapor pressire X2 = mole fraction of solute in the solution Boiling Point Elevation: Freezing Point Depression: Osmotic Pressure: (nonelectrolyte solution) osmosis: selective passage of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated one osmotic pressure of a solution (π): pressure required to stop osmosis π = MRT M = molarity R = ideal gas constant T = absolute pressure (Kevin) Colloids: a dispersion of particles of one substance throughout another substance larger than regular solute particles, but too small to be settled out by gravity tyndall effect: light will shine through a colloidal solution hydrophilic: water loving / hydrophobic: water hating a molecule can be both depending on which part you look at Van’t Hoff Factor (¡):
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