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Anthropology 120 Week 2 notes

by: Adrienne Nave

Anthropology 120 Week 2 notes 22469

Adrienne Nave
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About this Document

These notes cover week 2 notes and the start of human origins.
Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology
Dr. Hollenback
Class Notes
Anthropology, Archaeology, Human Origins
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrienne Nave on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 22469 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Hollenback in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
Anthropology 120: Prehistoric Archaeology Week 2 Notes Human Origins - Humans and apes evolved from a common ancestor around 6 million years ago - Evolution: change over time o Genes are past on to the next generation o Descent with modification o Genetic mutations are random and if the mutations are favorable for the animal the animal will be more adapted to the environment and pass this gene onto the next generation Our Primate Heritage - Around 65-55 million years ago, the first primates start to appear - Terrestrial insectivores 55-65mya o Small nocturnal mammals similar to moles, shrews and hedgehogs - Some mammals became arboreal 38-55mya o Add fruits and soft plants to diet - Some return to the ground o As forests began to disappear, some mammals, such as apes adapted to the new environment o Diversified diets: roots, tubers, nuts, seeds, meat - Primates can adjust to many environments since they have such a diversified diet Hands and Feet - Over the course of time and evolution, hominin developed hands with opposable thumbs so as to grasp things better. They also developed flattened nails instead of claws along with rotatable arms. Vision - Primates in general have very well developed vision such as stereoscopic vision which is used to gage distance Social Behavior - We and our primate relatives have evolved into very complex and cooperative social behavior. Human social behavior is mainly facilitated through communication. High Intelligence - Our high intelligence has been evolved to monitor our surrounding environments, help with hand/eye coordination, and for us to have high levels of social interaction. - All of this is possible because we have highly adapted and developed brains that are also large. What Makes Us Human? - Bipedalism - Different Skeletal Structure - Speech/Communication - Fine Motor Skills - Highly evolved tools o Apes do make and use simple tools but do not improve on the tools and pass them on to the next generation like humans do. - Social Hierarchy - Sexual Dimorphism: the difference in appearance between males and females - Physical Characteristics o Bipedalism  We have a different bone structure than apes. Apes have much longer arms in comparison to our own. We have a more centered foramen magnum while apes is located towards the back of the head o Smaller Teeth and Face  We have smaller teeth and more flattened face because we do not do as much heavy chewing as our ancestors did. Past apes had a Sagittal crest which jaw muscles attached to for more force when chewing food. o Long post-reproductive life for females o Larger/More Complex Brain  Because humans have such large brains, women adapted to have a larger birth canal. We also developed a prolonged infancy. - Behavioral Characteristics: o Hunt for Meat o Share Food  Apes normally only share food between the mother and her young, and some chimps share food. Apes are not dependent on sharing food to meet their nutritional needs like humans are. o Transport Food  Apes are not known to transport food or tools. o Language o Sexual division of labor  Apes do not separate labor, whereas humans do. In human groups in the past, males would hunt for meat, while females gather plant food. Human males also contribute more to offspring care. o Food Preparation o Home base Derived and Ancestral Traits - Ancestral traits: Ancestral traits appear in older species of the same lineage and are retainable through time - Derived traits: Two Types of Early Hominid Sites - Paleontological Sites o These are sites which contain Hominid fossils. - Archaeological Sites o These are sites where stone tools and secondary deposits such as animal bones were found. Sites in East Africa - Aegyptopithecus: 35-55mya o Possible ancestor to all world apes and monkeys. - Proconsul- 20mya o Referred to as dental ape o Had ape teeth and a monkey body o Found around Lake Victoria - Sahelenthropus chadus o Somewhat of a forward foramen magnum which suggests bipedalism o Human like teeth - Ardipithecus Ramidus- 4.4mya o Possibly the lost link between human and apes o Hands and wrists indicate no knuckle walking o Still has an opposable big toe for climbing trees o Has smaller teeth and flat feet o More ape like lower pelvis - Australopithecus anamensis- 4mya o Bipedal due to its non flexible ankle o So it spent less time in trees o But it still had large teeth - Australopithecus afarensis- 4-3mya o “Lucy” o Bipedal, arch in the foot, non-opposable big toe o Short legs, and long arms o Age determined by potassium argon dating - Laetoli, Tanzania Site 3.6mya o Possibly an Australopithecus afarensis found o Volcano eruption caused ash to settle on the ground and as it rained the ash began to turn to cement, which two hominins then walked through, preserving their footprints. o 88ft of footprints o Footprints indicate raised arch and a ball on the foot - Africanus (3-2mya) o Larger brain the smaller teeth o Found at the Taung site o Still has longer arms and was a child possible killed by an eagle - Australopithecus/Paranthropus (means walking beside) o Robustus  Heavy cheek bones  Prominent Sagittal crest  Large molars o Boisei - Garhi- 3-2mya o Small sagittal crest o Larger strides when walking st o 1 stone tools found - Homo habilis- “handy man” 2.4-1.4mya o Larger brain, smaller face and teeth o Still had longer arms and sloping prognathic face - Oldowan stone tools- 2.5mya o Gona, Ethiopia o Tools found are known as choppers which were probably used for chopping scavenged meat and grains. - Koobi Fora Site, Kenya- less than 1.9mya o More complex tools o Scrapers found - Site FLK Zinj in the Oldowan Gorge- 1.8mya o 2570 stone tools o Animal bones with cut marks o Over 48 carcasses were found - Site Fx Jj 20, Koobi Fora- 1.6mya o Evidence for baked sediments and thermally altered stone indicating fire


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