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Chem 103, week 1 notes

by: Tara Dennehy

Chem 103, week 1 notes CHEM 103-003

Tara Dennehy

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About this Document

These notes cover the uses of chemistry, how to classify matter, Kinetic Molecular Theory and other information regarding substances and properties.
General Chemistry I
Jennifer Dahl
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Dennehy on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 103-003 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Jennifer Dahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
CHEMISTRY:  ­study of matter and changes of matter (have mass and occupy space)    used to…  ­generate new fundamental knowledge in...  ­medicine (clinical chemistry)  ­pharmaceutical research  ­water purification  ­agricultural science  ­electronic industry  ­detrimental uses…  ­bombs/chemical warfare  ­drugs  ­pollution    What matter ischaracterizes composite, bonding and structure  What matter does behaves and reacts    CLASSIFYING MATTER:    Solid Liquid Gas  Fixed shape,  Fixed volume,  Highly variable volume (depends on   volume and high variable shape,  container), flow and very  density (p= m/v) flow, and medium to low density  high density    H2​ (s) →(mel → H2​​ (l)(boi​→ H2​ (g)    H2​ ​g) →(subliminat​→ H​2​(s) →(depositi​→ H2​ (g)    H2​​ (​→ ​condense→ ​ 2​ (​→ (freez→​ H2​ (s)    *All above reactions are dremperature    KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY:  ­all matter consists of particles (atoms, molecules and ions) and those particles are constantly in  motion (all based on temperature)  ­the state of matter we observe is a balance between…  1) attractive forces between particles  2) temperature dependent kinetic energy of those particles    Solidsattractive force is much greater than kinetic energy  Liquids­​ enough attraction to allow condensation, but particles still have enough kinetic energy  to move    Gas­​ weak attractive forces, so particles move freely    2H​2​(g) + O2​g) → 2H​2​ (l)  *states of matter can change    PURE SUBSTANCES:  ­have their own set of distinguishing physical characteristics  example: melting point, boiling point, density  ­components cannot be further separated without performing a chemical reaction    MIXTURES:  ­two or more pure substances  ­physical properties depend on…  1) identity of component  2) ratio of combination  3) how they miss  a) homogeneous  i) components end up in the same phase and mix uniformly  (soluble/miscible)  ii) examples: ​alloy, air, vodka  iii) these mixtures can start out in two different phases   b) heterogeneous  i) two components that are not soluble or miscible with each other  ii) examples:​ sand in water, smoke, salad dressing, granite in sand    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:  ­characteristics that we can either observe or measure without changing the chemical  composition  ­examples:  ­color ­transparency ­luster  ­matter state ­solubility ­density  ­melting point ­boiling point ­hardness  ­viscosity    DENSITY:  ­mass to volume relationship ( m/v)  ­measured in g/cm​ 3 or g/mL  ­examples​ : a real diamond has a density of 3.51 g/cm​3 while a fake diamond made of SiC has a  3 density of 3.21 g/cm​  ­density of water is 1.00 g/mL  *low density material will float on high density material  Extensive physical properties…  ...can measure depending on the amount of material (solubility, color)    Intensive physical properties… not depend on the amount of material    PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES:  physical​ changes state of matter  Au (s) → (1200 C) → Au (l) : the chemical composition is unchanged    chemical­​ changes the chemical composition  Au (s) + 3HNO​ 3​+ 4HCl → HAuCl​ 4​ 3NO​ 2​ 3H​2​ : there is a chemical transformation with new  compounds               


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