Psych 288 Week 3 Chapter 3
Psych 288 Week 3 Chapter 3 Psych 288
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by mkennedy24 on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 288 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. S. Gervais in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Social Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Social Psychology 288 Chapter 3 02/02/2016 ▯ Chapter 3: Social Cognition- How we Think About the Social World Social Cognition: How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically how people select, interpret, remember, and use social info to make judgments and decisions; Process in which people make sense of other people, themselves, and social situations o Example: Amadou Diallo- February 4, 1999 Four white police officers mistook Diallo for a serial rapist that was supposedly in the area. When asked for identification, Diallo reached for his wallet and police officers took that as a threat and fired Diallo 41 times killing him. o Two modes of social cognition: Automatic Thinking: Thought that is unconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless First impression; slamming car brake when child runs into road Controlled Thinking: Thought that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful Whether or not to break up with boyfriend/girlfriend On Automatic Pilot: Low-effort Thinking o Keith Payne 2001 Black or White face for 200 milliseconds Weapon or tool Instructions: Ignore face, judge as quickly as possible whether second picture weapon or a tool Results: People associated a weapon more with a white face rather than a black face; People associated a black face with a tool rather than a white face o People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with Schemas Schemas: Mental structures people us to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the info that people notice, think about and remember Functional: Guide attention and memory; help us interpret ambiguous situations Many schemas could be applied to each situation Schema applied, determines construal of situation Accessibility: The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world 1) Chronically accessible due to past experience 2) Accessible because schema related to current goal 3) Accessible due to recent experiences Priming: The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept Thoughts must be accessible and applicable before they act as primes o Making Our Schemas Come True: Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The case wherein people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act towards that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with peoples original expectations, making the expectations reality Step 1: Forming an expectancy Category based Personal experiences, first impression Implicit personality theories o Theories of what kinds of personality traits go together Step 2: Perceptual Confirmation We see what we expect to see People say. . . o “ I wouldn’t have believed it if I hadn’t seen it” But we should really say. . . o “I wouldn’t have seen it if I hadn’t already believed it” We are not aware of this process (Automatic) Step 3: Behavioral Confirmation Expectations lead us to behave in such a way that the target unintentionally confirms our expectation o Believe target is unfriendly o Act unfriendly towards target o Target responds with unfriendly behavior Example: Behavioral Confirmation (Word, Zanna, & Cooper, 1974) Step 1: Procedure White Ps interview job applicants Black and White confederates give identical answers to questions Step 1: Results “Immediacy Perceptual Confirmation Step 2: Procedure White P’s come to lab to be interviewed Confederates interview Ps High or low in “immediacy” Step 2: Results Immediacy and performance Example: Guy believes he talking on phone with pretty woman instead of not as pretty of a woman so the guy is nicer to the prettier of the two. (From lecture) o Types of Automatic Thinking Using “mental shortcuts” for decisions: Judgment Heuristic Judgment Heuristic: Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently Types of judgment heuristic: Availability Heuristic: A general rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind Representative Heuristic: A mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case (Barnum Effect) Base Rate Info: Info about the frequency of member of different categories in a population Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: Using a numeric value as a starting point, and then adjusting one’s answer away from this anchor o Useful if anchor value is valid o Errors if anchor value invalid o USUALLY DO NOT ADJUST ENOUGH! Cultural Differences in Social Cognition o Holistic versus Analytic Thinking Analytic Thinking Style: A type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context; common in Western Cultures Holistic Thinking Style: A type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context particularly in which the objects relate to each other; Common in East Asian Cultures Controlled Social Cognition: High Effort Thinking o Controlled thinking and free will o Mentally undoing the past: Counterfactual reasoning Counterfactual Reasoning: Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been o Improving Human Thinking Overconfidence Barrier: The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments ▯ ▯
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