PSY202, Week 5 Notes
PSY202, Week 5 Notes PSY 202
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Social Development Attachment: One of the fundamental needs infants have is to bond emotionally with those who care for them. attachment: a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances Attachment is also adaptive; attachment is a dynamic relationship that facilitates survival for the infant and parental investment for the caregivers. Attachment behaviors begin during the ﬁrst month of life, but ay vary somewhat, depending on cultural practices. Attachment motivates infants and caregivers to stay in close contact. Origins of Attachment Harlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact (comfort) and not because of nourishment. Put monkeys with a wire monkey who feeds them and a cloth monkey. The monkey chose the cloth one over the metal one. They scared the monkey and he ran to the cloth monkey for comfort. Attachment Style Attachment responses increase when children start moving away from caregivers and typically display separation anxiety. Using the strange-situation test, Ainsworth identiﬁed infant/caregiver pairs: secure attachment (60-65%): child is distressed when caregiver leaves, but is quickly comforted when caregiver comes back. the child puts its arms up to show it wants to be picked up. insecure attachment (35-40%): the child is either not distressed or extremely distressed. the child will either not seek the caregiver, or they will both seek and reject the caregiver. Chemistry of Attachment: Oxytocin plays a role in maternal tendencies, feelings of social acceptance and bonding, and sexual gratiﬁcation. Infant sucking during nursing triggers the release of oxytocin in the mother and stimulates the biological process that moves milk into the milk ducts so the infant can nurse. Phenomena the appear to be completely social in nature, such as the caregiver/child attachment, also have biological inﬂuences. From the Womb through Childhood The ﬁrst 12 years old our life are full of immense changes: Physical Cognitive Social They prepare use for the next stages of our lifespan, adolescence and adulthood. Human Development: From Adolescence Onward From Childhood to Adolescence? Identity formation is an important part of social development, especially in Western cultures, where individuality is valued. Psychologist Erik Erikson proposed a theory of human development that emphasized age-related psychosocial challenges and their eﬀects on social functioning across the life span Erik son further conceptualized each stage as having a major developmental “crisis”, or development challenge to be confronted. Each crisis provides an opportunity for psychological development; a lack of progress may impair further psychosocial development Adolescence: Many psychologists once believed that our traits were set during childhood. Today, psychologists believe that development is a lifelong process. Adolescence is deﬁned as a life between childhood and adulthood. Physical Development Adolescence begins with puberty (sexual maturation). Puberty occurs earlier in females (11 years) than males (13 years). Thus height in females increases before males. Biologically, adolescence is characterized by the onset of sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce During puberty, hormone levels increase throughout the body adolescent growth spurt: a rapid, hormonally driven growth spurt Secondary sex characteristics: the non-reproductive traits Brain development: until puberty, neurons increase their connections. However, at adolescence, selective pruning of the neurons begins. Unused neuronal connections are lost to make other pathways more eﬃcient. Frontal Cortex During adolescence, neurons in the frontal cortex grow myelin, which speeds up nerve conduction. The frontal cortex lags behind the limbic system’s development. Hormonal surges and the limbic system may explain occasional teen impulsiveness. Cognitive Development Adolescent’s ability to reason gives them a new level of social awareness. In particular, they may think about the following: Their own thinking What others are thinking What others are thinking about them How ideals can be reached. They criticize society, parents, and even themselves. Developing Reasoning Power According to Piaget, adolescents can handle abstract problems, i.e., they can perform formal operations. Adolescents can judge good from evil, truth and justice, and think about God in deeper terms. Developing Morality Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas t children and adolescents, such as “should a person steal medicine to save a loved one’s life?” He found stages of moral development. 3 Basic Levels of Moral Thinking 1. Preconventional Morality: show morality to avoid punishment or get a reward 2. Conventional Morality: social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake 3. Postconventional Morality: aﬃrms people’s agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles. Morality As our thinking matures, so does our behavior in that we become less selﬁsh and more caring. People who engage in doing the right thing develop empathy for others and the self-discipline to resist their own impulses. Cultural Inﬂuences Children develop their expectations about gender through observing their parents, peers, and teachers, as well as through the media gender identity: personal beliefs about whether one is male or female gender roles: the characteristics associated with males and females because of cultural inﬂuence or learning gender schemas: cognitive structures that reﬂect the perceived appropriateness of male and female characteristics and behaviors. Biological inﬂuences: The biological aspects of gender come from many sources, the most important of which is brain chemistry. Gender identity begins very early in prenatal development resulting from a complex cascade of hormones, changes in brain structure and function, and intrauterine environmental factors. Parents and Peer Inﬂuences Although teens become independent of their parents as they grow older, they nevertheless relate to their parents on a number of things, including religiosity and career choices. Peer approval and relationships are also very important. Adulthood Early Adulthood (18-25): isolation vs. intimacy may live with parents, may go to college, getting married (in some cases) Reach peak physical development around age 20 Adulthood: generatively vs stagnation contemplate productivity mid-life crisis Old age: integrity vs despair after 70, hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell diminish, as do muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina. motor abilities also decline Aging and Memory As we age, we remember some things well. These include recent past events and events that happened a decade or two back. However, recalling names becomes increasingly diﬃcult. Recognition doesn’t decline with age. Aging and Intelligence Fluid intelligence: ability to reason speedily (declines with age) Crystalline intelligence: accumulated knowledge and skills (doesn’t decline with age)
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