Diversity II Notes Week 2
Diversity II Notes Week 2 211
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Diversity of Life II Week 2 1/26/15 Bacteria - Pathogenic Organisms -few bacterial infections found in plants; most are fungal/viral Agrobacterium -causes Crown gall -injects DNA into plant cells and induces toxins -tumor cells produce new molecules and novel chemicals that only Agrobacterium can use for food Bacillus anthracis -naturally occurring soil organism -forms spores, waits for optimal conditions to be released -rod shaped -facultative anaerobe -no known cases of human-human spread; infections only arise from soil or infected animals -intense studies made to use B. anthracis for bioweapon because anyone can isolate it, but it is not easy to weaponize a bacteria whose lethal form is a spore Have 3 forms: Cutaneous -causes itchy bumps, ulcers and skin death -has a 1 – 20% death rate Ingestion -causes nausea, vomiting, fever and diarrhea -25 – 60% mortality rate Inhalation Starts as mild cold but leads to breathing problems and shock >75% death rate Yersinia pestis -Gram negative rod form -Facultative anaerobe -Ruptures blood vessels and leak blood, causing black skin -normal hosts are rodents, and transmitted by fleas *Bubonic plague -buboes (pus-filled sacs of bacteria) found in groin and armpits **Black Death (1348-1350) – 100million killed, ~1/3 of current world population -many of these plagues since; used by Japan against China in WWII -still ~3000 deaths per year, last outbreak in 1994 Mycobacterium leprae -rod shaped -aerobe -acid fast -prevalent since biblical times; contaminated people confined to “Leper Colonies” -not very contagious, treated with antibiotics -has long incubation times Mycobacterium tuberculosis -rod shaped -very aerobic sensitive microbe -cells do not stain, which makes it tough to see and identify -slow growing = 10-15hr generation time (vs. E. coli = 10-15min Generation time) -very infectious from breathing in exhaled microdroplets 2 states, Latent and Active -1 treated with isolating sanitariums, 1 used in the US was Adirondack Cottage in Saranac Lake -sanitariums really didn’t do much treating, but made breathing easier for patients -now can be treated with constant combination of antibiotics -bacteria currently developing resistance because those infected do not follow the proper treatment regime (stop before the full term, once they start feeling better) *White Plague, 17 and 18 century Europe – nearly 100% of population infected (“died from consumption”) Streptococcus pyogenes -Gram positive sphere -forms long chains -occurs naturally in skin and throat -causes strep throat -scarlet fever seen in more serious cases -Rheumatic fever (infects lungs and heart) -Necrotizing fasciitis flesh-eating bacteria Staphylococcus aureus -Gram positive -facultative anaerobe -forms “grape-like” clusters -found in skin and nose of ¼ of world population -Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem -methicillin is primary antibiotic for S. aureus -MRSA often seen in hospitals, nursing homes -produces ulcers and “scalded skin syndrome” Clostridium tetani -Gram negative rod - obligate anaerobe, forms spore in presence of O2 *Puncture wood = anaerobic, cut = aerobic -present in soil -causes tetanus -common during Middle Ages (lockjaw) and during the 19 and 20 th centuries ~10% mortality rate -produces powerful, contracting neurotoxin across all muscles leads to spastic paralysis (“World’s worst Charlie Horse”) Clostridium botulinum -Gram positive -rod shaped -obligate anaerobe, forms spore for protection -found in soil -produces neurotoxin, destroys parts of nerve cells causing them to relax and shut down -fatal if untreated, 1g in water supply can kill 1 million people; even treatment can take months and full recovery unlikely due to long-term nerve damage -Food botulism very common improperly canned food -Wound botulism -Infant botulism found in honey more damaging to infants 2 years old or younger) Clostridium difficile -Gram positive -drumstick shape -facultative anaerobe, form spores in presence of O2 -found in soil -2 to 5% are carriers with no symptoms -can spread rapidly in hospitals, highly contagious -forms 2 toxins that can perforate intestines -causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea ~30,000 deaths/year -bacteria are developing antibiotic resistant strain Helicobacter pylori -Gram negative rod -Microaerophyllic – lives in low O2 levels -over 50% of people are carriers, ~10-20% get ulcers -original theory was the ulcers formed from stress or spicy food NULL & VOID ~1% risk of stomach cancer Escherichia coli -Gram negative rod -facultative anaerobe -seen in mammals -found naturally as an intestinal microbe -has pathogenic strains (0157:H7 and 0104:H4) -most commonly infected from poorly handled, undercooked meat, organic crop fertilized with manure, and improper sanitation -causes intestinal problems, kidney failure and CNS complications Salmonella sp -seen in birds and reptiles -normal in animal intestines -can infect humans -comes commonly from undercooked or poorly handled chicken -1.4million cases/year -causes intestinal disorder and fever *Use 2 cutting boards, 1 for cutting the chicken 1 for the vegetables *E. coli and Salmonella sp are closely related, diverged ~100MYA Salmonella enteric typhi -human pathogen -impacts spleen and intestines -very treatable but antibiotic resistance is increasing -causes ~600,000 deaths/year -many people can be asymptomatic carriers; those originally infected are locked in isolation to prevent further spread -see Typhoid Mary Mallon – led to 78 known cases of infected families from her refusing to properly sanitize -believed to have killed Rudyard Kipling, Wilbur Wright and Alexander the Great Treponema pallidum -Gram negative spore -causes syphilis and is spread via sexual contact -can be passed to newborns 4 stages: primary, secondary, latent and late final stage can be fatal -Tuskegee Study (1932-72) – 399 Africans were diagnosed with syphilis, but left untreated as part of a research experiment -1/3 died of syphilis or other complications Bartonella henselae -Gram negative -curved rod -aerobic -transmitted by fleas or cat scratches (cats are the primary carriers) -dangerous to only those who are immune-compromised *Cat Scratch Fever Aeromonas hydrophila -Gram negative -rod shaped -found in fresh water -common pathogen to fish and amphibians -can infect humans in open cuts and leads to gastric upset -also causes necrotizing fasciitis flesh-eating bacteria 1/28/16 Bacteria – the Good Guys Atmosphere is mostly N and CO2 About 4BYA cyanobacteria began to photosynthesize (pre-plants), oxygen produced as a waste product (free O2 was novel in env at the time) -O2 binds with iron in water, iron precipitates out Banded Iron Formations -By 2BYA excess iron ran out and oxygen began saturating sea water, and released into the air *O2 – powerful degrader of organic molecules -Most organisms couldn’t survive presence of oxygen at the time, led to one of the greatest mass extinctions of all time -today it is vital to almost all life forms, save for obligate anaerobes See stromatolites in Caribbean and Shark Bay, W Australia (largest collection of “living fossils”) Escherichia coli -normal intestinal microbe -colonize infant intestine within 40 hours (not always seen in those born via C-sections) -source of Vitamins K and B complex vitamins (humans cannot produce these naturally) -used for metabolism studies -easily genetically engineered Lactobacillus acidophilus -microaerophyllic rods (prefers low O2 levels) -produces lactic acid, which can inhibits growth of other organisms (can outcompete growth of unfriendly bacteria) so eat lots of yogurt Propionibacteriaceae -G + rods -Produce gas as they grow -Swiss chess Leuconostoc mesenteroides -G + spheres -Gives tang to sauerkraut Lactobacillis sanfranciscensis -G + rod -sourdough bread Methane production -range of Eubacteria and Archaea that produce methane (used as natural gas/energy source) -found in landfills, shale oil deposits and deep ocean ridges -form methane from other organic material Ethanol production -normally done via yeast, but is harder to engineer than bacteria (in terms of fuel sources on industrial scale size) -Zymonmonas mobilis -natural ethanol producer -engineered to increase productivity Can we take these natural organisms and use them to operate in our fashion and move away from petroleum? -also used in different feed for stock Sewage treatment -human waste originally mixed with cow manure for fertilizing crops -aerobic -microbes digest organic material in liquid form produces CO2 and ions as by-products -solid material digested anaerobically -microbes digest material and release methane used in power plants to generate methane for fuel, heat, and electricity Bioremediation -use of microbes to break down environmental pollution -natural setting (oil spills) and reactors (smaller chemical spills) Rhizosphere bacteria -grow on surface of roots, needed for obtaining necessary nutrient uptake (sugars, growth hormones) -multiple species Nitrogen fixation (necessary element for survival, found mostly in gaseous state) -Rhizobium spp. -Frankia sp. -G – rods -G + filaments -both are facultative aerobes -form nodules -will only fix N in anaerobic environments Endophytic bacteria -similar to E. coli in humans -grow inside plant tissues -aid in growth, disease resistance and drought tolerance Agrobacterium -crown gall by injecting plant DNA into cell (see previous notes) -use bacterial machinery to engineer towards desired traits (plant transformations) *American chestnut program -crop improvement -golden rice derived from plain white rice with increase in Vitamin A (carrots) Bacillus thuringiensis -used by organic gardeners to control insect pests -toxin gene cloned into plants directly rather than have bacteria grown on plant surface -can the toxins move into humans from these plants? -can these be harmful to our more helpful insects? Clostridium botulinum -botulism injections used to remove skin wrinkles Human microbiome -10x more microbial cells than mammalian cells in our bodies (same applies to pretty much every other organism on the planet) Aid in: digestion, disease prevention, weight regulation, hormone production, autoimmune responses -look more at eukaryotic/microbial symbiotic interatctions Pseudomonas syringae -natural form initiates formation of ice crystals (frost), mutant form doesn’t have protein -mutant forms of bacteria that don’t have protein, along with many other mutations -engineered strain has only the important frost mutation, and is sprayed on plants to act as frost protection -Can we use ice crystal formation in other places? -hail & snow -Role in eliminating drought? -use in clouds to drive ice crystal formation to make them heavy enough for precipitation
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