Psychology 101 Chapter 7 Notes
Psychology 101 Chapter 7 Notes PSYC 101 03
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Renouard on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 03 at Gonzaga University taught by Anna Medina in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Ch. 7 – Learning Classical Conditioning Learning- acquiring new skills, knowledge, or responses to life experiences that permanently affect the learner Habituation- the process of something happening over and over again that results in a reduction in response o Ex: when you walk into a room and there is an air freshener on you smell it right away, but the more time you spend in the smell the less and less you smell it Sensitization- when something happens that makes you more sensitive to a later stimuli o Ex: if your house gets broken into, you may be more sensitive to hearing sounds late at night than you were before the event Classical Conditioning- when a normal thing happens and produces a response after being paired with something else that produces that response o Ex: you eat a Poptart when you are sick and you throw it up; now the smell of Poptarts makes you sick Unconditioned stimulus (US)- something that usually produces a natural response in an organism (being sick) Unconditioned response (UR)- a reflexive reaction produced by a US (throwing up) Conditioned stimulus (CS)- a previously normal thing (Poptart) that routinely produces a response after being paired with a US Conditioned response (CR)- a reaction that is the same as the UR only is produced but the CS Acquisition- a phase of classical conditioning where the CS and the US are presented together to create an association o Pavov’s dogs were given food at the same time they heard tone; now the dogs would salivate at the sound of the tone Second-order conditioning- conditioning where the CS is paired with a stimulus associated with a US that was already established o Pavlov now paired the tone with a black square; the dogs now salivate when they see a black square they drool Extinction- the steady removal of a learned response that happens when the CS is repeated without the US o Eating a Poptart over and over without getting sick o Sounding the tone over and over without giving the dog food Spontaneous recovery- when a learned behavior recovers from extinction after a rest period Generalization- when the CR is triggered even though the CS is slightly different than the CS that originally caused the reaction o Getting sick at the smell of fake fruit flavors that smell similar to the original Poptart Discrimination- the ability to tell the difference between two similar but distinct stimuli o Not getting sick at the smell of real fruit Watson did an experiment on conditioned emotional responses with a child. He took the child and gave him a white rat to play with. Whenever the child tried to touch the rat a steel bar was struck creating a loud noise that scared him. Eventually the sight of the rat alone would make the child scared. The child would also generalize this fear to a white rabbit or a Santa Claus mask. He did this to prove that emotional responses could be triggered through classical conditioning. Further research by Pavlov showed neutral elements Classical Conditioning o Neutral meaning neither positive nor negative o Blowing on a rabbits face causing it to blink while sounding a tone causing the rabbit to blink when hearing a tone Evolutionary advantage to classical conditioning o If you eat something that makes you sick then it is probably bad for you and you shouldn’t eat it again, hence your natural aversion to it Biological preparedness- tendency to learn some associations over others Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning- type of learning where consequences of a behavior determine if it will be repeated in the future Edward Thorndike studied instrumental behaviors (behavior that required an organism to do something) o Used a puzzle box that was a crate with a door that would open when a concealed lever was triggered o He would place a hungry cat inside with food outside where it clawed and tried to get out until it would trip the lever. Once tripped he put the cat back in o Over time the other behaviors like meowing and scratching became less frequent and hitting the lever became more frequent Law of Effect- behaviors followed by something positive are more likely to be repeated and behaviors followed by negative things are less likely to be repeated o This is different from classical conditioning because in CC the US happened no matter what (pavlov always brought the dog food whether it salivated or not) but in this the cat’s behavior determined what happened BF Skinner: o Operand behavior- behavior of an organism that effects the environment o The environment would provide events that either strengthened (reinforced) or made them less likely (punished) o Positive and negative reinforcement don’t mean good or bad; they mean something was either added or taken away from a situation o Effectiveness of reinforcement depends on timing between the behavior and the reinforcement the more time between the two the less effective Discrimination and generalization are both parts of operand behavior just like classical conditioning Behaviors become extinct just like classical conditioning as well if reinforcement is stopped Interval Schedules: o Fixed-interval schedule (FI)- reinforcers are given at fixed times given that the appropriate response is made Ex. on a 2 min FI, a response will be reinforced but only 2 minutes after the last reinforcement creating a burst of response at the end of the schedule o Variable-interval schedule (VI)- behavior reinforced established on average time that has passed since last reinforcement Ex. on a 2 min VI, responses will be reinforced every 2 mins on average o Fixed-ratio schedule (FR)- reinforcement is given after a certain number of responses have been made Ex. buy 2 get one free sales o Variable-ratio schedule (VR)- reinforcement based on a particular average number of responses Ex. you have a 1/10 chance of winning the lottery, but if you buy 10 tickets that doesn’t mean you’ll win; you can also win if you just buy one o Intermittent reinforcement- when only some responses made produce reinforcement more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement o Intermittent reinforcement effect- operand behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules repel extinction better than those under continuous reinforcement Shaping- learning that results from the reinforcement of consecutive steps to get a final behavior o Ex. teaching how to ride a bike. First you have to learn how to balance on training wheels and then once you’ve mastered that you can move on to the final real bike Superstitious behavior happens when the brain connects two unrelated things to each other to form a correlation o Ex. a kid points a toy magic wand at the car at the same time the parent hits remote start and thinks his magic did it Latent learning- something that is learned but not established as a behavioral change until a later time Observational learning- learning by watching others o Coaches may rely on this when trying to teach how to play a sport o Children look to adults to see what they do and to copy o Found in animals as well Implicit learning- learning that takes place without knowing the process and the product of information gathering o Muscle memory o Ex. texting is automatic; driving is very natural for an experienced driver; a pianist may not think very hard when playing a practiced piece
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