Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Psych 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Common Thinking Intuition – an immediate and automatic thought or emotion Hindsight Bias – the tendency to think one knew the outcome of a situation after having learned the results (“To know it all along”) Overconfidence – the tendency to believe one knows more than they actually do o Humans tend to overestimate performance and the accuracy of their knowledge o Can lead to problems in eyewitness testimony as humans cannot solely rely on intuition and common sense Tendency to Perceive Order in Random Events – tendency to believe one can create a prediction from a random sequence Scientific Components Curiosity – the want to investigate and comprehend scientific ideas without misleading Humility – aware of the ability to make an error and being open to new perspectives Critical Thinking – thinking that does not blindly accept conclusions and examines assumptions from a source to look for hidden bias The Scientific Method Scientific Method – A process to test ideas, observe them, and analyze the results through selfcorrection Theory – a predicted explanation of behaviors or events using previously known principles and observations Hypothesis – a testable prediction created from a theory that helps to accept or revise it Operational Definition – a phrase specifically worded to define a research variable Replication – to repeat a research study using the same operational definitions but different participants and situations in order to determine if the original findings extend further than the first experiment Descriptive Methods – to observe people’s thoughts and attributes in order to describe behaviors Correlational Methods – associate different factors to explain behaviors Experimental Methods – factors are manipulated in an experiment in order to determine their effects Types of Experiments Used to Study Behavior Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Case Study – a descriptive technique in which individuals and/or groups are studied directly and in depth to find and understand universal principles o Can be unrepresentative of entire population o Example: Phineas Gage Case Study Naturalistic Observation – method of observing and recording behavior in natural environments without manipulation or control of the situation Survey – method of receiving selfreported ideas or behaviors of a group through questioning a random sample o Can be used to study multiple cases yet is less in depth than other methods Population – the entirety of a group being studied which samples are drawn from Random Sample – a fairly representative group of an entire population where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment o Selection of participants is usually by chance Correlation Correlation – a measure of the extent that two factors vary together and how much either factor predicts the other Correlational Coefficient – statistical index of the relationship between two factors o Can range from 1.00 (completely negative correlation) to 1.00 (completely positive correlation) http://study.com/academy/lesson/scatterplotandcorrelationdefinitionexampleanalysis.html Regression toward the Mean – the tendency for unusual and extreme data points to regress (fall back) toward the average Correlation does not prove causation (only indicates a possibility of a cause and effect relationship) Characteristics of Experimentation Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Experiment – a method of research where an investigator manipulates factors to observe their effects on a certain behavior or mental process Experimental Group – the group in an experiment that is exposed to treatment or tested factors Control Group – the group in an experiment not exposed to the tested factors which allows for a comparative group in order to evaluate the effect of the treatment o Both groups (control and experimental) share same characteristics except for the manipulated and tested factor Random Assignment – a way to assign participants to either the control or experimental groups by chance in order to limit differences between the groups at the start of the experiment DoubleBlind Procedure – experiment in which both participants and researchers are unaware of which group received the treatment or placebo (sugar pill) o Placebo Effect – the idea that results are caused by expectations of what the outcome should be based on the assumption by a participant that the placebo is actually and active agent Independent Variable – the manipulated factor in an experiment whose effect is being studied o Confounding Variable – a random factor, unaccounted for, that may produce or alter an effect Dependent Variable – the outcome that is reported and changes based on the manipulation of the independent variable Statistical Measures Statistics present accurate pictures of data and help to reach valid conclusions Measures of Central Tendency – use a single score to represent the whole o Mean – the average of a distribution that can be shifted by an outlier o Mode – the most frequent number in a data set o Median – the 50 percentile or middle score Measures of Variation – represent the relationship of numbers in a data set o Range – the difference between the largest and smallest score in a data set o Standard Deviation – the measure of how scores vary or deviate from the mean Can be represented in a bellshaped curve called normal curve Generalizing Observations to Other Populations An observed difference is reliable when o There is nonbiased sampling o Observations are consistent o And more cases and data points are measured Statistical Significance – statistical statement of the likelihood that a result occurred by chance o Data must be reliable Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o The difference between groups must be significantly large Statistical significance indicates likelihood but not the importance of the result
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