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Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

by: Bailey Gabrish

Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Psych 1010

Marketplace > Science > Psych 1010 > Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
Bailey Gabrish

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About this Document

These notes cover the textbook chapter as well as the lecture from class!
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to psych, Science, Social Science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Common Thinking  Intuition – an immediate and automatic thought or emotion  Hindsight Bias – the tendency to think one knew the outcome of a situation after having  learned the results (“To know it all along”)  Overconfidence – the tendency to believe one knows more than they actually do o Humans tend to overestimate performance and the accuracy of their knowledge o Can lead to problems in eyewitness testimony as humans cannot solely rely on  intuition and common sense  Tendency to Perceive Order in Random Events – tendency to believe one can create a  prediction from a random sequence Scientific Components  Curiosity – the want to investigate and comprehend scientific ideas without misleading  Humility – aware of the ability to make an error and being open to new perspectives  Critical Thinking – thinking that does not blindly accept conclusions and examines  assumptions from a source to look for hidden bias The Scientific Method  Scientific Method – A process to test ideas, observe them, and analyze the results through self­correction  Theory – a predicted explanation of behaviors or events using previously known  principles and observations  Hypothesis – a testable prediction created from a theory that helps to accept or revise it  Operational Definition – a phrase specifically worded to define a research variable  Replication – to repeat a research study using the same operational definitions but  different participants and situations in order to determine if the original findings extend  further than the first experiment  Descriptive Methods – to observe people’s thoughts and attributes in order to describe  behaviors  Correlational Methods – associate different factors to explain behaviors  Experimental Methods – factors are manipulated in an experiment in order to determine  their effects Types of Experiments Used to Study Behavior Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Case Study – a descriptive technique in which individuals and/or groups are studied  directly and in depth to find and understand universal principles o Can be unrepresentative of entire population o Example: Phineas Gage Case Study  Naturalistic Observation – method of observing and recording behavior in natural  environments without manipulation or control of the situation  Survey – method of receiving self­reported ideas or behaviors of a group through  questioning a random sample o Can be used to study multiple cases yet is less in depth than other methods  Population – the entirety of a group being studied which samples are drawn from  Random Sample – a fairly representative group of an entire population where each  member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment o Selection of participants is usually by chance Correlation  Correlation – a measure of the extent that two factors vary together and how much either  factor predicts the other  Correlational Coefficient – statistical index of the relationship between two factors o Can range from ­1.00 (completely negative correlation) to 1.00 (completely  positive correlation)­plot­and­correlation­definition­example­analysis.html  Regression toward the Mean – the tendency for unusual and extreme data points to  regress (fall back) toward the average  Correlation does not prove causation (only indicates a possibility of a cause and effect  relationship) Characteristics of Experimentation Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Experiment – a method of research where an investigator manipulates factors to observe  their effects on a certain behavior or mental process  Experimental Group – the group in an experiment that is exposed to treatment or tested  factors  Control Group – the group in an experiment not exposed to the tested factors which  allows for a comparative group in order to evaluate the effect of the treatment o Both groups (control and experimental) share same characteristics except for the  manipulated and tested factor  Random Assignment – a way to assign participants to either the control or experimental  groups by chance in order to limit differences between the groups at the start of the  experiment  Double­Blind Procedure – experiment in which both participants and researchers are  unaware of which group received the treatment or placebo (sugar pill) o Placebo Effect – the idea that results are caused by expectations of what the  outcome should be based on the assumption by a participant that the placebo is  actually and active agent  Independent Variable – the manipulated factor in an experiment whose effect is being  studied o Confounding Variable – a random factor, unaccounted for, that may produce or  alter an effect  Dependent Variable – the outcome that is reported and changes based on the  manipulation of the independent variable Statistical Measures  Statistics present accurate pictures of data and help to reach valid conclusions  Measures of Central Tendency – use a single score to represent the whole o Mean – the average of a distribution that can be shifted by an outlier o Mode – the most frequent number in a data set o Median – the 50  percentile or middle score  Measures of Variation – represent the relationship of numbers in a data set o Range – the difference between the largest and smallest score in a data set o Standard Deviation – the measure of how scores vary or deviate from the mean  Can be represented in a bell­shaped curve called normal curve Generalizing Observations to Other Populations  An observed difference is reliable when o There is nonbiased sampling o Observations are consistent o And more cases and data points are measured  Statistical Significance – statistical statement of the likelihood that a result occurred by  chance o Data must be reliable Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o The difference between groups must be significantly large  Statistical significance indicates likelihood but not the importance of the result


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