Class Note for CHEM 250 at UMass(3)
Class Note for CHEM 250 at UMass(3)
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
Reviews for Class Note for CHEM 250 at UMass(3)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
eehmemhuh eeehgexhewhemwme TTsTeeTszeM SUENHFK AMEREAN r Januavy 32mm Getting to Know Nutmceuticals Claims forsome ofthese foodband diemy supplemems stand up to scienti c sermihy but others falter By Themas Hayeeh We TTye Th ah age wheh eeee heThTTeh pvac casiaa TeTs eTwheTe gYaTnS TTesh TTeTTs ahe TTesh vegetames heTe The TaTTy meaT ahe hyeTeeehaTee yeeeTaeTe EIT SiaYE sTmp ey sTTaTehTTehwaTe ahe WTeeTy ayaTTaeTe Em yTsTT a weTTsTeehee heaTTh Teee s qu phaTmaey eT supevmavkeh ahe yee e heyeT knuW TT The yaTTeTy eTeTeTaTy seppTemehTs eah he quVWhE mmg WNh eezehs DVVNammS mTheTaTs ahe emacts eTTeTee aTehe ahe Th eemeThaTTehsTaTeeTee aT eyeTy pessTeTe ThTeTseeTTeh eTaeeT sex ahe aeTTyTTy Ahe ThaT seTeeTTeh Ts a heThTTehaT eeseh eempaTee Te The TTepTeaT TaTh TeTesTeTeyeT eTyeTsTTy eT seppTemehTs aT meTe speeTaTTzee sTeTes DTeTaTy seppTemehTs aTe eTe buSmESS Th The u s eehsemeT saTes Th 2mm WEYE esTTmaTee aT 22 5 bTHTDn WNH seme an pEVEEM eT Ameheahs TahThe aT TeasT a eaTTy meTTTyTTamTh Em Thahhs Te a TeeeTaTeTy sTTeeTeTe eesTehee meTe Te pTemeTe The ayaTTaeTTTTy eT seppTemehTsThah Te ehseTe ThaTThey eeTTyeT eh TheTT pvumTSES TT eah seem TmpessTeTe Te TTeeTe eeT Wha iwanylhmgiyuu sheeTe he TahThe The epTTehs Tahee TTemThe aTmesT appEHng ju apusmun eT gavhcy eTahheTTy ahe sey eeheehTTaTes Te The eeWhhehT maeahTe eTaheeTaTs Ahe TTeTammThe pmmavy pvusa2 ahe paheTeas emacts ThTe a sTheTe pTTT eeesh T eeehT as DVEYkTH Theh seTeTy aheTheT pTeeeeT eehTaThThe W ammsy mTheTaTs ahe mus1 eTThe eTeehemTeaT ThTeTmeeTaTes eTThe eeTTeTaT Webscyde mesT The shepTTeaT eTewseT eeeTe he TempTee Te ask wheTe Te he The snake eTT aTsTe Em wheTeas survey eT peThaps many hesTTems aTe he meTe TTheTyTe TmpTeye unng y aTeTThess ahe aThTeTTe peheTmahee Thah The eeTeaTTs eTeTe WEYE Te waTe qumpsy eT HENDUS ag a mn heT aH eah he se easTTy eTsstsee SeyeTaT ehee Emu eTeTaTy seppTemehTs haye heeh The Teees eTThyesTTeaTTeh TeT meTe Thah a eeeaee HDW ahe a seTeeT Tew eah heasT sTTehe eeahTTTaTTye suppun as a TeseTT ohe eTeep Th pahTeeTah The nuhacemma s Ts aTTTaeTThe The aTTehTTeh eTheaTTh aeyeeaTes ahe seTehTTsTs ahke OeeepyThe a space semewheTe heTweeh essehTTaT heThehTs These heThehTs eTTTTeaT Te heTmaT heahh seeh asyTTamThs ahe eTeesWTTh eeTThee TmpaeTs eh speeThe deeases heTTaeeeTTeaTs aTe hTeaeTTye ehemTeaTs eehyee TTemTeees heT Taheh as seppTemehTs aT meeh hTeheT eeheehTTaTTehsThah eTeT aTehe eeeTe pTeyTee They TheTeee ammwdams TTemTTeTTs ahe eehTes TaTTy aeTes Teehe Th cu drwammsh ahe meMTaHy eTseaseTTehTThe eempeehes TTem eemmeh spTees seeh as eThhameh ahe TeTmehe cTaTms haye heeh maee TeT TheTT TeTe Th eyeTyThThe TTemTTehTThe eaheeT ahe eaTeTeyaseeTaT eTsease Te maeeehTheTyyaeee heTTehs abum seppeTTThe heaTThy TTyThe The eaTeeeTyeTheTTaeeeTTeaTs Ts YEaHyVEvybmad andMEW eTTeeTs mayhe hTTeJ says PaeT M Cue es dwacmv eT The oTTTee eTDTeTaTy SeppTemehTs ODS aTThe NaTTehaT ThsTTTeTes eTHeaTTh haT eTyes yee a eTee Te The seTehTTTTe ehaTTehees eTeheeTsTaheThe Them They Tahee TTem seppTemehTswheTe We eeh T eyeh knuW whaT The aeTTye TheTeeTehTs aTe Te eempeehes ThaT aTe wen ehaTaeTeTTzee ehemTeaTTy heT wheTe The meee eTaeTTeh Ts sTTTT UnknDWn Te datey mesT heTTaeeeTTeaTs haye heeh The seeTeeT meTe eTmaTheTThe hype Thah eTmeTheeTeaT eTThTeaT TesTTheT ahe TeT many TT Ts heT eyeh yeT hheWh wheTheT They pTeyTee meTe heheTTTs Thah TTshsTeT eehsemeTs Em Th aT TeasT a haheTeT eT MWHWWNSUIMWu17ndd mdzganmg39larknWrnulnum phmzlma hgel m6 Scientific American Getting to Know Nutraceuticals 1608 1215 PM cases the science is starting to catch up with the health claims The Fishy Benefit of omega35 Probably the best known of the nutraceuticals the omega3 fatty acids are also the most intensively studied Like all fatty acids the building blocks of fats and oils omega3s are linear molecules with a carboxylic acid head at one end trailing a tail of linked carbon atoms Those links can be made with either single saturated or double unsaturated chemical bonds Omega3 simply refers to a double bond in the third position from the end of the carbon tail Starting with alphalinolenic acid ALA an essential nutrient common in many nuts and vegetable oils our bodies can synthesize all the omega3 fatty acids they need to build cell membranes and carry out a host of cellular functions But evidently we could stand to make a lot more of at least a couple of them Beginning in the 1970s epidemiologists started to notice that Eskimo and other groups of people who ate a lot of coldwater fish tended to have low levels of heart disease and stroke Oil from such fish is packed with two unusually long omega3s docosahexaenoic acid DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid EPA The epidemiological evidence was strong enough that it led to a whole series of clinical studies and randomized control trials with fish oilquot says nutritionist Penny M KrisEtherton of Pennsylvania State University By 2002 the results were positive enough for the American Heart Association panel on which KrisEtherton sat to issue a statement recommending increased fish consumption for the general public and daily consumption or supplements of fish oil for coronary heart disease patients Since then KrisEtherton says the evidence has just grown stronger for a cardioprotective effect from marinederived omega3 fatty acidsquot Stronger yes though not necessarily less complicated In a 2006 review of 842 scientific papers on omega3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease a research team based at the Tufts New England Medical Center in Boston concluded that only EPA and DHA seemed beneficial ALA their plantproduced precursor was not And while the studies showed clear evidence that fish oil helped to prevent heart attacks and cardiac deaths especially among patients who had already suffered one heart attack the effects on stroke were all over the map For people who have pacemakers too there is a mixed bag of evidencequot KrisEtherton says One study shows a benefit one shows an adverse effect and one shows no benefitquot It is a common issue with nutrition studies she notes given the vast diversity of human research subjects variations in the concentration or mixture of supplements and often uncontrolled factors such as baseline diets or preexisting illnesses it s not unusual to see different studies canceling each other outquot Understanding exactly how DHA and EPA work would help but the molecular pathways underlying the fatty acids heart protective activity are still unknown They seem to lower blood levels of triacylglycerol often called triglyceride keep cholesterol from gumming up arterial walls and help to control unwanted blood clotting and inflammation among other risk factors Given that fish oil has now been linked to improvements in everything from asthma and rheumatoid arthritis to type 2 diabetes and neurological diseases there is almost certainly more than one molecular mechanism in play and almost certainly a bright future for omega3 fatty acids on the supplement shelf Science Sours on Favorites The outlook is not quite so rosy for all the early candidates for nutraceutical stardom however In many ways lycopene was a food manufacturer s dream compound Grocery profit margins are notoriously slim and adding nutraceuticals to staple foods has been prohibitive consumers who will pay 20 for a bottle of fish oil pills balk at shelling out an additional dollar for a loaf of bread supercharged with omega3 fatty acids But lycopene a deepred plant pigment and powerful antioxidant not only shows up in plants such as tomatoes for free its bioavailability is actually increased by the boiling squeezing and other rigors of food processing Early epidemiological studies suggested that men who ate diets rich in tomato products enjoyed lower than average rates of prostate cancer and lycopene was identified as the likely reason The ironic result is that while ketchup may not be the school lunch vegetable President Ronald Reagan once claimed it to be for a while even a foil packet of the stuff had a legitimate shot at being declared a dietary supplement Ulrike Peters isn t happy that she had a hand in placing ketchup back in the condiment aisle A nutrition and genetics epidemiologist at the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle she had high hopes for lycopene s cancerfighting ability But when her research team analyzed blood lycopene levels of participants in a large cancer study including 692 men who had developed prostate cancer and 844 randomly selected men who had not they found no association between httpvwvwsciamcomarticlecfmidgettingrtorknowrnutraceumprinttrue Page 2 of 4 Scientific American Getting to Know Nutraceuticals 1608 1215 PM the antioxidant and the malignancy Even more troubling her study found a link between high blood levels of lycopene s chemical cousin betacarotene and an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer not enough to justify avoiding carrots and other food sources of betacarotene but an ominous sign that not all foodderived compounds are necessarily benign when taken at higher doses The results were very disappointing Peters says It would be great to have such an inexpensive way to lower prostate cancer risk but our study dampens that possibility Unfortunately it often happens that health claims get out in front of scientific evidencequot Whether that has also been the case with another much more popular supplement is still unclear Glucosamine a simple amino sugar is well known to biochemists as the precursor for a wide range of important structural components of the body including the protein collagen in tough connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments Collagen is also a major component of the cartilage that makes up the smooth layer that protects and lubricates the bones in joints Early observational studies suggested that glucosamine could be helpful in combating the pain and cartilage destruction of osteoarthritis and it is widely available as a supplement derived from shellfish often in combination with the biochemicals chondroitin sulfate which helps to make collagen spongy and methylsulfonylmethane MSM a potential antiinflammatory agent Consumer sales reached an estimated 818 million for glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in 2006 according to the Nutrition Business Journal Observational studies while sometimes contradictory have suggested that arthritis sufferers do indeed benefit from using the supplements That possibility led to a large NIHfunded clinical trial of the supplements involving patients with knee osteoarthritis For 24 weeks 1583 participants in the aptly named GAIT Glucosaminechondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial were given one of the following treatments glucosamine chondroitin sulfate both in combination a placebo or the COX2 inhibitor Celebrex celecoxib as a control COX2 inhibitors have since been linked to negative cardiovascular side effects The results published in 2006 were underwhelming True almost 67 percent of the patients taking glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate reported a significant decrease in knee pain but so did fully 60 percent of those taking the placebo Only in patients with moderate or severe knee pain at the outset did the supplements show a significant advantage over the placebo with almost 80 percent of that group reporting a significant improvement compared with 543 percent who took the inert pills That favorable result is nothing to sneeze at nor for that matter is a placebo effect of 60 percent but it s far from warranting a blanket recommendation Simple Foods Aren t So Simple Even if ketchup is one day recognized as a nutritional powerhouse it s not likely to topple tofu from its shimmering gelatinous perch atop the health food heap High in protein and low in sugars and unhealthy fats soybeans and the bean curd produced from them have long been lauded as a sound substitute for animal proteins But they are also loaded with bioactive compounds and the science is not yet in on whether consuming them at nutraceutical doses is a good or bad thing The most investigated of those are a group of hormonelike polyphenols called isoflavones which seem to have effects on everything from kidney and cardiovascular disease and various cancers to hot flashes bone calcium loss and other symptoms of menopause Connie Weaver a Purdue University nutritionist and director of that institution s Botanicals Research Center for Age Related Diseases first became interested in soy isoflavones in 1999 I went to a local health food storequot she recalls and there were 13 different supplements that claimed to be effective for bone lossquot But when she checked the research Weaver recalls the literature was pathetic I decided we d better start doing some studiesquot What she and other researchers have found is a vast swamp of complexity Of the two main isoflavones genistein and diadzein the former seems to be more effective in preventing osteoporosis Unless that is the person consuming it happens to have bacteria in the gut that convert the compound diadzein into another one called equol which might offer more bone protection than either of the soy isoflavones or might not And there s even some worry that the soy compounds could boost rates of breast cancer just as estrogen supplements used in hormone replacement therapy can Nutritionally you ve got to appreciate soyquot Weaver says but there are also all these bioactive substances in therequot At high concentrations she adds the problem is that they do some good things some other things and some whoknows what thingsquot The goal Weaver asserts is to figure out what combinations have advantageous impacts on bone health heart health and so on without deleterious impactsquot At least three longterm trials testing the effects of soy isoflavones on bone health are in progress Weaver notes but we ve got a long way to go before we can say what works and what httpvwvwsciamcomarticlecfmidgettingrtorknowrnutraceumprinttrue Page 3 of 4 Scientific American Getting to Know Nutraceuticals 1608 1215 PM doesn t That conclusion means more research of course and dozens of nutraceutical trials are under way many sponsored by ODS and other branches of the NIH But some investigators fret that vital studies are being rushed or overlooked because of limited research funding Peters worries that lycopene s lackluster performance to date may mean that it never progresses to clinical trials a situation that could leave millions of consumers paying for supplements that might not be doing them any good We can t recommend using lycopene based on the current evidence Peters says but that doesn t mean it has no benefit There are some important studies that haven t yet been done Similarly Greg M Cole a researcher at the University of California Los Angeles who sees great promise in using omega3 fatty acids to prevent Alzheimer s disease and other forms of agerelated dementia expresses concern that current clinical trials lack funding to target the most promising patient population people who have not yet started to show signs of those problems The risk of Alzheimer s doubles with every five years after age 65 he says and we ve got a generation of 75 million people heading into that We can t afford to miss something that might help with prevention just because we couldn t find the money to study it NotSoHelpful Guidelines In the meantime patients physicians and just plain folks will have to do the best they can to make smart choices with incomplete and potentially misleading information The oversight of dietary supplements is loose FDA regulations allow for several different types of efficacy claims to be made on labels including fairly robust signi cant scientific agreement claims that the nutrient in question has a direct effect on a specific disease but also socalled qualified health claims where phrases such as some evidence suggests that are added There s even room for structurefunction claims calcium builds strong bones is a noncontroversial example which are not even evaluated by the FDA The claims do have to carry a footnoted disclaimer to that effect however a stipulation that can result in supplement labels with more asterisks than a Major League Baseball record book The danger of pseudoscience and quackery is very real says Jeffrey I Mechanick an endocrinologist at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine who has written extensively about the use of dietary supplements in the treatment of diabetes and other metabolic diseases Dietary supplements in general should not be supplanting proven therapies he cautions but I don t see any reason to use words like alternative or complementary to describe them I just use proven or unproven and that proof is what should guide patients and their physicians For many nutraceuticals the most compelling evidence for efficacy remains anecdotal or at best based on hints of benefit from small or poorly controlled studies Still Weaver says that doesn t stop several of the researchers at her institute from using nutraceutical supplements themselves Anecdotal evidence really shouldn t be very convincing to scientists she says but people remain hopeful That hope to a large degree is what fuels the popularity of dietary supplements But it s good science that ultimately will determine whether the hope is well placed or not httpvwvwsciamcomarticlecfmidgettingrtorknowrnutraceumprinttrue Page 4 of 4
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'