Medical Terminology: chapter 1
Medical Terminology: chapter 1 HITT 1305
Collin County Community College District
Popular in Medical Terminology 1
Popular in Department
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by elzbietaag on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HITT 1305 at Collin County Community College District taught by Dr. Tasby in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
Reviews for Medical Terminology: chapter 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 1: The Structure of Medical Language Medical Language and communication o Communication is any language consists of five language skills. Reading Listening Thinking, analyzing, and understanding Writing (or typing) and spelling Speaking and pronouncing The beginning of Medical Language o Etymology is the study of word origins. o Many words have come from other languages o Many medical words come from the ancient Latin or Greek Languages o Some medical words are similar to words from old English, Dutch, and French. Nucleus: Latin Nucleus Pelvis: Latin pelvis Sinus: Latin Sinus Paranoia: Greek paranoia Thorax: Greek thorax Artery: Latin arteria Muscle: Latin Musculus Vein: Latin vena Phobia: Greek phobas Sperm: Greek sperma Bladder: English blaedre Heart: English heorte Drug: Dutch droog Physician: French physician Medical Singular and Plural Nouns o Latin Singular and Plural Nouns -a: change –a to –ae (vertebra = vertebrae) -us: change –us to –I (bronchus = bronchi) -um: change –um to –a (bacterium = bacteria) -is: change –is to –es (testis = testes) -ex: change –ex to –ices (apex = apices) o Greek Singular and Plural Nouns -is: change –is to –ides (iris = irides) -nx: change –nx to –nges (phalanx = phalanges) -oma: change –oma to omata (fiberoma = fibromata) -on: change –on to –a (ganglion = ganglia) Medical Word Parts o There are three different kinds of word parts: Combining form: the foundation of the word Is the foundation of the word Gives the word its main medical meaning Has a root, forward slash, a combining vowel, and a final hyphen Most medical words contain a combining form Sometimes a medical word contains two or more combining forms, one right after the other o Abdomen/o- = abdomen o Append/o- = appendix o Arteri/o- = artery o Intestine/o- = intestine o Laryng/o- = larynx (voice box) o Muscul/o- = muscle o Thyroid/o- = thyroid gland o Tonsil/o- = tonsil o Ven/o- = vein o Cholecyst/o- = gallbladder o Cost/o- = rib o Enter/o- = intestine o Hepat/o- = liver o Hyster/o- = uterus o Lapar/o- = abdomen Suffix: the word ending Modifies or clarifies the medical meaning of the combining form A single letter or a group of letters that begin with a hyphen Most medical words contain a suffix Occasionally, a medical word has TWO suffixes (ex: nutritional, personality, incisional) o Suffixes for adjectives –ac : pertaining to (cardiac) –al : pertaining to (intestinal) –ar : pertaining to (muscular) –ary : pertaining to (uriniary) –ic : pertaining to (pelvic) –ine : pertaining to (uterine) –ive : pertaining to (digestive) –ous : pertaining to (venous) o Suffixes for processes –ation : a process; being or having (urination) –ion : action; condition (digestion) o Suffixes for diseases -ia : condition; state; thing (pneumonia) -ism : process; disease from a specific cause (hypothyroidism) -it is : inflammation of; infection of (tonsillitis) -megaly : enlargement (cardiomegaly -oma : tumor; mass (neuroma) -osis : condition; abnormal condition; process (psychoses) -pathy : disease (arthropathy) o Suffixes for diagnostic, medical, and surgical procedures -ectomy : surgical removal (appendectomy) -gram : a record or picture (mammogram) -graphy : process of recording (mammography) -metry : process of measuring (spirometry) -scope : instrument used to examine (colonoscope) -scopy : process of using an instrument to examine (gastroscopy) -stomy : surgically created opening (colostomy) -therapy : treatment (psychotherapy) =tomy : process of cutting or making an incision (laparotomy) o Suffixes for medical specialties and specialists -iatry : medical treatment (psychiatry) -ics : knowledge; practice (dietetics) -ist : one who specializes in (therapist) -logy : the study of (cardiology) Prefix: an optional word beginning Modifies or clarifies the medical meaning of the combining form A singular letter or group of letters that end with a hyphen Occasionally, a medical word has TWO prefixes o Prefixes for location or direction Endo- : innermost; within (endotracheal) Epi- : upon; above (epidermal) Inter- : between (intercostal) Intra- : within (intravenous) Peri- : around (pericardial) Post- :after; behind (postnasal) Pre- : before; in front of (premenstrual) Sub- : below; underneath (subcutaneous) Trans- : across; through (transvaginal) o Prefixes for amount, number, or speed Bi- : two (bilateral) Brady- : slow (bradycardia) Hemi- : one half (hemiplegia) Hyper- : above; more than normal (hypertension) Hypo- : below; deficient (hypothyroidism) Poly- : many; much (polyneuritis) Quadri- : four (duadriplegia) Trachy- : fast (trachycardia) Tri- : three (trigeminal) o Prefixes for degree or quality A- : away from; without (aspermia) An- : without; not (anesthesia) Anti- : against (antibiotic) De- : reversal of; without (dementia) Dys- : painful; difficult; abnormal (dysphagia) Eu- : normal; good (euthyroidism) Mal- : bad; inadequate (malnutrition) Re- : again and again (respiration) Analyze and define words: Combining form and suffix o Divide the medical word into its combining form and suffix o Give the meaning of each word part o Put the word part meaning in order, beginning with the suffix, then the connecting words to make the definition Analyze and define words: prefix, combining form, AND suffix o Divide the medical word into its prefix, combining form, and suffix o Give the meaning of each word part o Put the word part meanings in order, beginning with the suffix, then the prefix, then the combining form. Then add small connecting words to make the definition. Build Medical words: suffixes that begin with a constant o Select the suffic and combining form o Change the order of the word parts to put the suffix last o Because the suffix begins with a constant, keep the combining form’s vowel. Build medical words: suffix that begins with a vowel o Select eh suffix and combining form o Change the order to put the suffix last o Because the suffix begins with a vowel, delete the combining form’s vowel. The Medical Record o The medical record is where healthcare professionals document all care provided to a patient. o It contains not only medical documents, but those that are also legal documents that can be used in a court of law. o The paper medical record has been the traditional form of a medical record, but it has some disadvantages: Only one person can access it at a time It can become lost or damaged, and it can take time to retrieve a patients past medical records This delay can compromise the delivery of quality care Computerized Patient Records (CPRs) o Most physicians’ offices, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities have converted to computerized patient records (CPRs) o Healthcare professionals can have immediate access to both current and previous medical records The Medical Record o The electronic patient record (EPR), electronic medical record (EMR), or electronic health record (HER), provides seamless, immediate, and simultaneous access by many healthcare professionals to all parts of a patient’s record regardless of where those parts were created or stores. Standard Headings in Hospital Admission and Discharge Documents o Chief Complaint (CC) o History of present illness (HPI) o Past medical (and surgical) history (PMH) o Social History (SH) and Family History (FH) o Review of systems (ROS) o Physical examination (PE) o Laboratory and X-ray data o Diagnosis (Dx) o Disposition Types of treatment forms o Before patients can be treated at any type of healthcare facility, they must sign CONSENT TO TREATMENT FORMS that give the physicians and other healthcare professionals the right to treat them. Treatment without consent is against the law and is considered to be battery For patients who are minors, the parent or legal guardian signs he consent to treatment In an emergency situation, care is provided until the appropriate person is able to consent. o Patients must sign another consent form if they are to have surgery o Prior to a surgery, the physician describes the purpose of the surgery and informs the patient of alternatives, risks, and possible complications o The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 Patients must also sign a form allowing the facility to contact their insurance companies to obtain payment for the health care provided All healthcare settings must provide patients with a statement verifying that their medical record info is secure and is only released to authorized healthcare providers, insurance companies, or to healthcare quality monitoring organizations.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'