Medical Terminology: chapter 2
Medical Terminology: chapter 2 HITT 1305
Collin County Community College District
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by elzbietaag on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HITT 1305 at Collin County Community College District taught by Dr. Tasby in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Chapter 2: The body in health and disease The body in health o When the human body’s countless parts function correctly, the body is in a state of health. o Seven different approaches for studying the body: Body planes and body directions Body cavities Body quadrants and regions Anatomy and physiology Microscopic and macroscopic Body systems Medical specialties Body Planes and Body Directions o When the body is in anatomical position, it can be studied by dividing it with planes. A plane is an imaginary flat surface that divides the body into two parts. o There are three body planes: coronal plane, sagittal plane, and transverse plane. o These body planes divide the body into front and back, right and left, and top and bottom sections. o Body directions represent movement away from or toward those planes. o Coronal Plane and Body Directions The coronal plane (or frontal plane) is a vertical plane that divides the body into front and back sections. The coronal plane is named for the coronal suture in the cranium. The front of the body is the anterior or ventral section. The back of the posterior or dorsal section. Lying face down is the prone position. Lying on the back is being in the dorsal or dorsal supine position. o Sagittal Plane and body directions The sagittal plane is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sections The sagittal plane is named for the sagittal suture in the cranium. If this plane divides the body at the midline into equal right and left sections, then it is a midsagittal plane. Moving from the side of the body toward the midline is moving in a medial direction, or medially. Moving from the midline toward the side of the body is moving in a lateral direction, or laterally. Bilateral includes both sides. o Transverse Plane and Body Directions The transverse plane is the horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower sections. The upper half of the body is the superior section, and the lower half is the inferior section. Moving toward the head is moving in a superior direction, or superiorly. This is also the cephalad direction Moving toward the tail bone is moving in an inferior direction, or inferiorly This is also called the caudad direction o Other body directions and locations Moving from the trunk of the body toward the end of a limb (arm or leg) is moving in a distal direction, or distally Moving from the end of a limb toward the trunk of the body is moving in a proximal direction, or proximally. Structures on the surface of the body are superficial or external Structures below the surface and inside the body are deep or internal Body Cavities o The human body can be studied according to its body cavities and their internal organs o A cavity is a hallow space that is surrounded by bones or muscles o The cranial cavity lies within and is protected by the cranium o The spinal cavity (or spinal canal) is a continuation of the cranial cavity as it travels down the midline of the back. o The spinal cavity lies within and is protected by the bones (vertebrae) of the spine o The spinal cavity contains the spinal cord, the spinal nerves, and spinal fluid o The thoracic cavity lies within the chest and is protected by the breast bone (sternum) anteriorly, the ribs bilaterally, and the bones of the spine posteriorly. o The inferior border of the thoracic cavity is the large, muscular diaphragm that functions during respiration o The thoracic cavity contains the lungs o The abdominal cavity lies within the abdomen and is protected by the abdominal wall anteriorly, and the bones of the spine posteriorly o The pelvic cavity is a continuation of the abdominal cavity and is surrounded by the pelvic (hip) bones anteriorly and bilaterally, and the bones of the spine posteriorly. o These two cavities are often called the abdominopelvic cavity because it is one continuous cavity with no dividing structure Body Quadrants and Regions o The human body can be studied according to its quadrants and regions o The anterior surface of the abdominopelvic area can be divided into four quadrants or nine regions o The four quadrants include: Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) o Then nine regions include the: Right and left hypochondriac Epigastric Right and left lumbar Umbilical Right and left inguinal or iliac Hypogastric Anatomy and Physiology o Anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body o Physiology is the study of the function of those structures Microscopic and macroscopic o Most cells and cellular structures are microscopic in size and can be seen only through a microscope o Some cells, such as a female ovum, can be seen with the naked eye o Cells combine to form tissues, and tissues combine to form organs o Tissues and organs are macroscopic and can be seen with the naked eye o Organs combine to form a body system o The human body contains several different body systems Body Systems o The human body can be studied according to its structures and how they function together in a body system. Gastrointestinal (GI) system Respiratory system Cardiovascular (CV) system Blood Lymphatic system Integumentary system Skeletal system Muscular system Nervous system Urinary system Male genital and reproductive system Female genital and reproductive system Endocrine system Eyes Ears, nose, and throat (ENT) system Medical Specialties o The human body can be studied according to the medical specialties that make up the practice of medicine o Each medical specialty includes the anatomy, physiology, diseases, laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs for that body system. o Gastroenterology Gastrointestinal system A gastroenterologist is a physician who specializes in gastroenterology o Pulmonology Respiratory system A pulmonologist is a physician who specializes in pulmonology o Cardiology Cardiovascular system A cardiologist is a physician who specializes in cardiology o Hematology Blood A hematologist is a physician who specializes in hematology. o Immunology Blood, lymphatic system A immunologist is a physician who specializes in immunology o Dermatology Integumentary system A dermatologist is a physician who specializes in dermatology o Orthopedics Skeletal system An orthopedist is a physician who specializes in orthopedics Muscular system o Neurology Nervous system A neurologist is a physician who specializes in neurology o Urology Urinary system A urologist is a physician who specializes in urology o Male reproductive medicine Male genital and reproductive system A reproductive specialist is a physician who specializes in reproductive medicine o Gynecology and obstetrics Female genital and reproductive system A gynecologist is a physician who specializes in gynecology. An obstetrician is a physician who specializes in obstetrics o Endocrinology Endocrine system An endocrinologist is a physician who specializes in endocrinology o Ophthalmology Eyes An ophthalmologist is a physician who specializes in ophthalmology o Otolaryngology Ears, nose, and throat (ENT) system An otolaryngologist is a physician who specializes in otolaryngology o Other medical specialties that aren’t directly related to a body system indlude: Psychiatry: study and treatment of the mind Oncology: study and treatment of cancer Radiology and nuclear medicine: use of x-rays, sound waves, and other forms of radiation and energy to diagnose and treat disease Dentistry: study and treatment of the teeth and gums Dietetics: study and use of nutrition, nutrients, and diet Pharmacology: study of drugs used as medicines Neonatology: study and treatment of newborn infants Pediatrics: study and treatment of children Geriatrics: study and treatment of the elderly The body in disease o Preventive medicine is the healthcare specialty that focuses on keeping a person healthy and preventing disease. o Much of medical language deals with diseases and how they are diagnosed and treated o Disease is any change in the normal structure or function of the body o The etiology is the cause or origin of a disease o In most cases, the cause of a disease is known or can be discovered through medical testing. In some cases, the exact cause of a disease is never completely understood. Disease Categories o Congenital degenerative o Environmental o Hereditary o Iatrogenic o Idiopathic o Infectious o Neoplastic o Nosocomial o Nutritional Onset of disease o Symptomatology is the clinical picture of all the patient’s symptoms and signs o Syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs associated with, and characteristic of, one particular disease. o Patients who are asymptomatic (showing no symptoms or signs) can still have a disease, but one that can be only detected by medical tests o The physician takes a history and performs a physical examination o For the history of the present illness, the physician asks the patient in detail about the location, onset, duration, and severity of the symptoms o The physician also asks about the patients past medical history, past surgical history, family history, social history, and history of allergies to drugs. o After taking the patients history, the physician performs a physical examination to look for signs of disease o The physician uses the following techniques (as needed) during the physical examination: inspection, palpation, auscultation, and percussion o Based on the patient’s history and results of the physical examination, the physician makes a diagnosis and identifies the nature and cause of the disease or condition. o If the physician cant make a final diagnosis, a temporary or working diagnosis is assigned and the patient is scheduled to undergo further diagnostic tests or referred to a specialist Course and outcome of disease o The course of a disease includes all events from the onset of the disease until its final outcome o Symptoms and signs may be Acute (sudden in nature and sever in intensity) Subacute (less severe in intensity), or Chronic (continuing for three months or more) o An exacerbation is a sudden worsening in the severity of the symptoms or signs o Remission is a temporary improvement in the symptoms and signs of a disease without the underlying disease being cured o A relapse or recurrence is a return of the original symptoms and signs of the disease o A sequel is an abnormal condition or complication that arises because of the original disease and remains after the original disease has resolved o The physician prescribes drugs or orders therapy for the patient o If the treatment is therapeutic, the symptoms or signs of the disease disappear o A disease that is refractory (resistant) is one that doesn’t respond to treatment o Certain diseases that cannot be treated with drugs or therapy may require surgery o The prognosis is the predicted outcome of the disease o The course of a disease ends in one of the following outcomes: Recuperation or recovery Disability Terminal illness Healthcare professionals o Physician (or doctor) The leader of the healthcare team who examines the patient, orders tests, diagnosis diseases, and treats diseases by prescribing drugs or therapy Surgeons are physicians who complete additional training in surgical techniques Primary care physicians (PCPs) specialize in family practice or pediatrics A physician or doctor who is on the medical staff of a hospital and admits a patient to the hospital is known as the attending physician o Physician extenders Healthcare professionals who work under the supervision of a physician or doctor (MD or DO) to examine, diagnose, and treat patients and sometimes prescribe medications Examples include: Physicians assistants (PAs) Nurse practitioners (NPs) Certified nurse midwives (CNMs) Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) o Allied Health Professionals Nurse (registered nurse [RN], licensed practical nurse [LPN], or licensed vocational nurse [LVN]) examines patients, makes nursing diagnoses, and administers treatments or drugs ordered by the physician Nurses give hands-on care and focus on the physical and emotional needs of the patient and the family Other allied health professionals Technologists Technicians Therapists Dietitians Medical assistants Phlebotomists Dental hygienists Audiologists Healthcare settings o Hospital Traditional setting for providing care for patients who are acutely ill and require medical or surgical care for longer than 24 hours The attending physician must write an order in the patients medical record to admit or discharge the patient A patient in the hospital is an inpatient Divided into floors or nursing units that provide care for specific types of patients. There are also specialty care unity such as the intensive care unit (ICU) Ancillary departments provide additional types of services and include radiology, physical therapy (PT), dietary, emergency (ED or ER), clinical lab, and pharmacy o Physicians office 1 of the most frequently used healthcare settings a single physician (or group) maintains an office where patients are seen, diagnosed, treated, and counseled. Some offices have their own labs and x-ray equipment Seriously ill patients who cant be quickly diagnosed or adequately treated in the office are sent to the hospital o Clinic Provides healthcare services similar to that of a physicians office, but for just one type of patients or one type of disease Outpatient clinics are located in hospitals or on their own No overnight stays o Ambulatory Surgery Center (ASC) A faculty where minor surgery is performed and the patient doesn’t stay overnight o Long-term care facility Primarily a residential facility for older adults 24 hour nursing care Called residents rather than patients Skilled nursing fterologyacility (SNF) o Home health agency Clients get taken care at home o Hospice Inpatient facility who are terminal Less than 6 months to live Includes: Palliative care Pain management Counseling Emotional support
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