Psych 288 Week 3 Chapter 4
Psych 288 Week 3 Chapter 4 Psych 288
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by mkennedy24 on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 288 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. S. Gervais in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Social Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Social Psychology 288 Chapter 4 02/02/2016 ▯ Chapter 4: Social Perception- How We Come to Understand Other People Social Perception: The study of how we form impression of and make inferences about other people; How we form impressions of other people o Nonverbal behavior o Kelly’s Covariation Theory of Attribution o Correspondence Bias and FAE Nonverbal Communication o Nonverbal Communication: The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expression, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and gaze Help express emotion, attitudes, and personality Facial and body gestures Universally recognized Mirror Neurons When we see a nonverbal behavior of another, same neurons fire as if we did behavior Implications: Learning Perspective-taking o Facial expressions of emotion Evolution and facial expressions Encode: To express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back Decode: To interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness Why is decoding sometimes difficult? o Affect Blends: Facial expressions in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different one o Culture o Aspects of the same facial expression can have different implications based on context and other cues Culture and Channels of Nonverbal Communication o Display rules: Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display Particular to each culture Emblems: Nonverbal gestures that have well understood definitions within a given culture; usually have direct verbal translations such as the “OK” sign First Impressions: Quick but Long-Lasting o Thin-slicing: Drawing meaning conclusion about another person’s personality or skills based on an extremely brief sample of behavior o The Lingering Influence of Initial Influence Primary Effect: When it comes to first impressions, the first traits we perceive in other influence how we view info we learn about them later Brief Perseverance: The tendency to stick with an initial judgment even in the face of new info that should prompt us to reconsider o Using first impressions and nonverbal communication to our advantage Casual Attribution: Answering the “Why” Question o Attribution Theory: A description in the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people’s behavior o The Nature of the Attribution Theory Fritz Heider- Father of the Attribution Theory Internal Attribution: The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality External Attribution: The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the situation he/she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in the situation Harold Kelley’s Covariation Model o Covariation Model: A theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person’s behavior, we systematically not the pattern between the presence or absence of possible casual factors and whether the behavior occurs o Look at features of: A particular behavior At a particular time o Compare with previous examples o Make attributions to: Actor (internal) Situation (external) o Kelley’s Attribution Theory “Why did Joe kick Fido?” Consensus Information: Info about the extent to which other people behave the same way towards the same stimulus as the actor does Do other people act similarly i.e. do other people kick Fido? Low: No one else kicks Fido-Internal Distinctiveness Information: Info about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to a different stimulus Does Joe kick other dogs? Low: Joe kicks all dogs-Internal Consistency Information: Info about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances Does Joe always kick Fido? High: Joe always kicks Fido- Internal Why did the Boss yell at his employee Hannah? People are likely to make an Low in consensus: Low in High in consistency: internal attribution—it The boss is the only distinctiveness: The boss yells at was something about the person working in The boss yells at Hannah almost every boss—if they see this the store who yells all the time he sees her behavior as at Hannah employees People are likely to make an High in consensus: High in High in consistency: external attribution—it All of the distinctiveness: The boss yells at was something about employees yell at The boss doesn’t Hannah almost every Hannah—if they see this Hannah too yell at any of the time he sees her behavior as other employees People are likely to think it Low or high in Low or high in Low in consistency: was something peculiar consensus distinctiveness This is the first time about the particular that the boss has circumstances in which the yelled at Hannah boss yelled at Hannah if they see this behavior as Table 4.2 Page 100 in Textbook Internal versus External Attributions Internal Low Consensus (“no one else kicks Fido”) Low Distinctiveness (“Joe kicks all dogs”) High Consistency (“Joe always kicks Fido”) External High Consensus (“Everyone kicks Fido”) High Distinctiveness (“Joe kicks only Fido”) High Consistency (“Joe always kicks Fido”) Making Internal Attributions- Jones and Harris (1967) Read essays written by another Anti- vs pro- Castro Choice or no-choice for position Guess author’s true feelings about Castro The Fundamental Attribution Error- People as Personality Psychologists o Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to overestimate the extent to which other peoples behaviors is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors (Westerners more likely to commit FAE) o Correspondence Bias: People perceive correspondence between behavior and personality; Think one’s values, attitudes, beliefs and opinions will determine behavior; “Causal Misattribution” o The role of perpetual salience in the FAE Perpetual Salience: The seeming importance of info that is in the focus of peoples attention Perpetual salience of actor Anchoring and Adjustment o Two step attribution process: Analyzing another person’s behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior after which one may adjust the original internal attribution o Self-Serving Attributions: Explanations for one’s successes that credit internal dispositional factors and explanations for one’s failures that blame external situational factors Belief in a Just World: A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things will happen to bad people and good things will happen to good people My own success is due to internal, dispositional factors BUT, my own failures are due to external, situational factors o The Bias Blind spot: The tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attribution biases in their thinking than we are o Actor/Observer Effect: Others’ behavior more dispositional than own Commit FAE more for others’ behavior Why? In part, a perceptual bias Actor focuses on the situation Observer focuses on the actor ▯ ▯
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