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BIOL 304 notes for Jan. 21,26, and 28

by: Alexandra Casey

BIOL 304 notes for Jan. 21,26, and 28 BIO 304

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Biology > BIO 304 > BIOL 304 notes for Jan 21 26 and 28
Alexandra Casey
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.9

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Here is the rest of the notes for the first exam. It includes diagrams to help simplify the relations between the different plants and classifications. These notes are completely reworked and reorg...
Economic Botany
Garrie Landry
Class Notes
BIOL, plants
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Casey on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 304 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Garrie Landry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Economic Botany in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Key Box: st Jan. 21 ***: Know for test besides definitions ***: Definition 1. Microrhizal – refers to the ROOTS of plants ** **: Word origin o “rhizome”= roots 2. Lichens ***: Titles o Ex of Lichen: the green stuff growing on the bark of a tree  Natural dyes also derive from lichens o composed of two components  1. Fungus  2. Alga o The components are symbiotic  Each component benefits from the other:  the alga makes own food and provides nourishment to the fungi (provides food)  the fungus makes the space livable for both alga and itself (provides a home) 3. Plant Kingdom: Non-Vascular Plants Vascular Plants  Do not have cells that transport food & water  Vascular tissue conducts food and water  Generally small o Xylem transports water up from the o NO leaves roots to the rest of plant o NO stems o Phloem  transports food from leaves o NO roots down to the roots  Every cell functions separately & makes own  Tracheophyte food- each cell works independently o “phyte”  plant  Uptakes water like paper once water o 2 basic groups: touches plant body, instantly absorbs the  Pteridophytes water o Produces by spore-  Bryophyte single cell structure o “bryo”  NO tissue  Spermatophyte o 3 basic groups: o Produces by seed-  Mosses multicellular structure  Liverworts  Hornworts A. Bryophyte a. Liverworts b. Hornworts c. Mosses i. Ex: Peat Moss- the dead remains of Sphagnum 1. Sphagnum- common moss that grows world-wide, would create bogs a. 1lb of dried sphagnum will soak up 26lbs of water i. Peat/sphagnum used today for potting soil ii. Old use- dry it, and then burn it for heat great source of fuel iii. Another use was in scotch- used the peat moss to burn/roast the barley, gives it a specific flavor b. Wherever it grows, the acidic nature of the bog is so high, **Tollund Man fungus and bacteria cannot survive  acts as a preserver 1. Ex: Tollund Man, The 2,400 Year Old Bog Body B. Trichophyte a. Pteridophytes i. has a distinct appearance a. “pteri”  winged b. “dophyte”  plant ii. Two main spore producing groups 1. Ferns a. Spores produce on the underside of plant 2. Fernallies iii. Reproduction- occurs AWAY from parent plant 1. WATER is the most important key to reproduction- water is the mechanism that transports the sperm to the egg to reproduce a. WITHOUT WATER IT CANNOT REPRODUCE! 2. Spores fall of parent plant, single cell spore, settles then germinates 3. When germinating 2 processes can occur: a. Produces a green heart shape body  on the plant body, eggs and sperms reproduce. After production, other fern goes away b. OR produces two different plants i. Sporophyte- spores ii. Gametophyte- gammes b. Spermatophypte- seed plant, multicellular i. 3 main features: 1. Stores food 2. Protective covering 3. Embryo ii. Two main seed producing plant: 1. Angiosperm – flowering plant a. Has an explosive number of plants b. World-wide success due to the production of 3 things: i. Flowers ii. Fruits iii. Seeds 2. Gymnosperm - cone bearing plants a. Only produces seeds b. 3 main groups of gymnosperms: Jan. 26th i. Cycads – clearly show seeds attached to it & develop on the leaf 1. Production of fruit: the seeds develop & leaves wrap around seed making the fruit 2. Palm in appearance (BUT NOT A PLAM, only looks like it) a. It is a flowering plant, produces flowers 3. Powerful toxins- almost every part of plant is toxic  Neurotoxins (effects brain) a. WWII story- men ate cycads in the pacific without asking natives how to prepare it to eat. Many of those men died 35 years later from brain disorders. The toxins were not strong enough to kill them upon digestion, it took a long time to kick in 4. Dates back to over 65 million years (dinosaur age) in which they adapted to the age in which it became toxic in order for dinosaurs not to eat them, they were more abundant in diversity as compared to now 5. Cycads ARE dioecious= either male OR female, has a specific sex as compared to a monoecious plant (BOTH male and female ex: pine trees are monoecious and have both male and female pine cones) 6. Cycads have swimming flagellated sperm cells a. Cycads and gingkos are the only seed plants to have swimming flagellated sperm cells i. The sperms on these plants are the largest in the universe- as big as the smallest flower ii. These sperm use to have to rely on water to transport to the eggs… not anymore though, now they can swim ii. Gingko 1. The only surviving member of gingko  Gingko biloba (the scientific name) a. The survival of the plant is due to monks in Central China who considered this plant to be scared and planted them around their monastery, they saved this plant from extinction i. It is now known to be sacred throughout China, Korea, Japan, etc. ii. Only known from cultivation today – It cannot be found in nature anymore 2. It is known for the use in herbal medication a. Chinese medicine  supports mental wellness b. Over the counter remedies are not toxic, but the plant CAN be toxic 3. HAS SWIMMING FLAGELLATED SPERM CELLS 4. IS DIOECIOUS 5. Widely sold in nurseries  typically only sell males a. Takes 20 years to reveal its sex iii. Conifers - Conifer= “cone bearing” 1. Majority are monoecious, but some (NOT MANY) are dioecious 2. There two types of pine cones a. Seed cones b. Pollen cones- Ex: the yellowish tiny cones that cover your car if you park under a pine tree, etc. i. Ephemeral short lived, only live about 2 weeks and then fall off the tree ii. When the pollen cones fall, they leave behind cone seeds (year 1) iii. 12 months later, those same cone seeds left behind become fertilized by the new pollen (year 2) iv. Another 12 months pass and maturation occurs and seeds are released (year 3) v. Bottom line: Conifers take so long to reproduce!  this is why there are so few of them. They are still a successful and important plant due to the fact the trees themselves grow quickly, a great source of lumber… they just reproduce so slowly! 3. Conifers are the largest living things on the planet 4. Examples: a. Reproduction Fullerton State Park, Fullerton Sawmill b. Largest tree living General Sherman Tree (Giant Redwood of California) c. Growing patterns  Coastal redwoods in California and Oregon grow in circles due to the decayed/ancient trees/roots in the center of each circle d. Oldest living tree  Bristle Cone Pine- 1,000 years old 5. Conifers brought forth the term “Windfall Profit” in economics meaning a profit coming upon by an accident a. New England king had a forest only for his own use, no one was allowed to cut down his tree UNLESS a storm came and the wind blew down a tree. 6. List of Conifers: Pine, Spruce, Redwood, Cypress, Cedar, Fir, Yew, Hemlock, Monkey Puzzle Tree, Thuja, Taiwan Fir, etc. a. A cypress is deciduous, meaning that it losses leaves in the fall 7. The liquid/ooze from conifer trees is called resin a. It is composed of: Turpentin (liquid), and rosin (wax) Tracheophyte vascular plant b. Pitch pines have the most resin- even used in steam engines because it gives off the most heat- very powerful Pteridophytes Spermatophyte 8. A virgin plant- not altered by man seed plant sporeplant a. Very few virgin forest exist in the south east and none ferns fernallies exist in LA. Gymnosperm Angiosperm cone bearing plant flowering plant Cycads Gingko Conifer swimming sperm swimming sperm OLDEST living thing 4) Fruit 1) Seed Jan. 28th Growing season: 1. Lifestyles of plants: 3) 2) Plant a. Perennial- lives from one growing season to another with no end in sight Flowers  indefinite lifespan b. Annual- lives for one growing season and then dies at the end on a growing season c. Biennial- lives for 2 growing seasons, then it dies i. Ex: Carrots: the 2 year it grows stem & flowers- reproduce, then the root (the storage) gives sugar to the rest of the plant and shrivels up and dies 2. Gymnosperms are ALL perennial 3. Angiosperms are all 3 different lifestyles a. Angiosperms are separated into two different groups: i. Monocot- 1 cotyledon (seeds) ii. Dicot- 2 cotyledon 1. Ex of cotyledon: a peanut  open shell seed inside, can split it in half Monocot: Dicot:  Groups of 3’s  count petals  4’s & 5’s  Fibrous root system  Primary root system  Veins in leaves run parallel  Veins in leaves branch out/netted  No woody monocots  Herbaceous (herbs) and woody  Stem: has vascular bundles randomly  Stem: has a ring of vascular bundles placed that later make a cell wall 4. Terms about plants: a. Complete – a plant has all of its parts b. Incomplete – the plant is missing any one or more parts c. Perfect – has stamen and pistil (stamen- male & pistil- female parts) d. Imperfect – missing any of the above sex parts i. Staminate  stamens only ii. Pistilate  pistils only  Ex: ** take petals off of a flower  incomplete, but still perfect o ** a plant can be monecious and have both male and female parts, but has multiple flowers that are either male OR female… thus making it have imperfect flowers --- an ex of this is corn 5. Fruits vs. Vegetables: Typically fruits are sweet and have seeds & vegetables are typically those that you use seasoning on  Fruit: i. Fleshy fruit: (Ex- tomato) ii. Dry fruit: 1. has fluid/liquid-succulence 1. No succulence or fleshy texture 2. Dehiscent= splits open to release seeds 2. Indehiscent= seeds are inside and do not split open 3. Simple= formed from 1 ovary 3. Compound= formed from 2 or more ovaries A. Fleshy fruit a. Pericarp- ovary wall i. 3 layers of an ovary wall 1. Exocarp  the outer layer 2. Mesocarp  the middle layer 3. Endocarp  the most inner layer ii. Ex: An orange --- 1) the exocarp is the orange color skin 2) the mesocarp is the white cottony layer on the inside 3) the endocarp is the juicy center with seeds b. Different types of fleshy fruits with varying forms of pericarp i. Drupe – the endocarp is stone like 1. Ex: a peach, plum, etc. ii. Hesperidium – the exocarp is like leather and the endocarp is juicy, separated into sections 1. Ex: citrus family iii. Peop – the exocarp is like grind and the endocarp is whole 1. Ex: melon family, pumpkin, etc. iv. Berry – all three layers are succulent and juicy 1. Ex: grape, tomato a. Most fruits with the name “berry” in it are actually not true berry fruits  strawberries, blackberries, etc. are NOT berries 2. There are two types of compound groups i. Aggregate- 1 flower with many ovaries ii. Multiple- many flowers, fuse to form one fruit and all their ovaries B. Dry fruit a. Dehiscent examples: 1. Legume – splits on 2 opposite sides 2. Follicle – splits on 1 side only 3. Schizocarp – splits on many sides a. Ex: Okra 4. Capsule – splits by pore or circular openings


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