Hock Readings 2 & 3
Hock Readings 2 & 3 APSY.UE.0002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Hock Reading 2 & 3 Reading 2 Mark Rosenzweig & Marian Diamond conducted 16 experiments over 10 years, testing the eﬀect of experience on the brain Rats randomly assigned to one of three conditions. 12 rats were placed in each condition 1. Standard laboratory: colony cage, food & water always available 2. Impoverished environment: slightly smaller cage, isolated room, adequate food & water 3. Enriched environment: furnished with toys - new set provided every day Rats lived in each condition for 4 - 10 weeks After allowed time: Rats’ brains were measured, weighed, and analyzed to determine the amount of cell growth and levels of neurotransmitter activity Of Particular interest -> Acetylcholinesterase (brain chemical) - allows for faster and more eﬃcient transmission of impulses among brain cells Brains of Enriched rats were diﬀerent from the impoverished rats Cerebral cortex of enriched rats = signiﬁcantly heavier and thicker Greater activity of the nervous system enzyme Acetylcholinesterase no diﬀerence in number of brain cells, but enriched rats produced larger neurons Ratio of RNA and DNA greater for the enriched rats higher level of chemical activity had taken place in enriched rats brains Synapses of the enriched rats’ brains were 50% larger than the impoverished rats Reading 3 1983 Thomas Bouchard, David Lykken, and associates at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis Conducted a study to ﬁnd which psychological characteristics are determined primarily by genetic factors and which are molded more by your environment Brought together 56 pairs of monozygotic reared apart (MZA) twins & conducted intensive psychological and physiological tests and measurements One Week= 50 hours of individual testing Asked participants questions everything pertaining to who they are and their life By testing fraternal twins separated at birth, we are able to see what parts of our personality are predetermined by genes (and how much of it is predetermined) Findings: genetic factors account for most human characteristics Demonstrated in data: 1. fraternal twins separated at birth, raised in diﬀerent settings…grew into adults who were extraordinarily similar physically, basic psychology, and basic personality 2. little eﬀect of the environment on the identical twins who were raised together a certain percentage of a human characteristic is pre-determined, but there is room for wiggle room a person can either heighten or lower the percentage
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