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First Week of Anatomy Lecture

by: Rebecca Hall

First Week of Anatomy Lecture Biol- n261 Anatomy Lecture

Rebecca Hall
GPA 3.8
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These notes cover the first week of lecture. Since we didn't talk about the material for first lecture there is only one chapter included: Introduction to Anatomy.
Anatomy Lecture
Dr. Yard
Class Notes
Yard, anatomy, Anatomy Lecture, Biology, introduction to anatomy, Chapter 1




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hall on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol- n261 Anatomy Lecture at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Dr. Yard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 293 views. For similar materials see Anatomy Lecture in Biology at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.

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Date Created: 02/01/16
Anatomy Lecture 2 Week 1 Chapter 1 – Introduction to Anatomy Anatomy: (morphology) the study of internal and external structures of the human body. Structure Determines Function Branches of Anatomy  Microscopic Anatomy: (fine anatomy) the study of body structures that cannot be viewed without magnification; (cytology and histology included) o Cytology: the study of the cells o Histology: the study of tissues  Gross Anatomy: (macroscopic anatomy) the study of body structures which are visible without the aid of magnification; (surface anatomy, regional anatomy, and systemic anatomy) o Surface anatomy: the study of shapes and markings on the body surface o Regional Anatomy: the study of all structures in a single body region o Systemic Anatomy: the study of all organs with related functions; one organ system at a time  Developmental Anatomy: the study of structural changes that occur from conception to physical maturity o Embryology: the study of structural formation and development before birth  Comparative Anatomy: the study of the anatomy of different types of animals  Pathological Anatomy: The study of structural changes in cells, tissues, and organs caused by disease  Radiographic Anatomy: The study of internal body structures by using noninvasive imaging techniques o X-ray imaging o Ultrasound  Surgical Anatomy: the study of anatomical landmarks which are important to surgical procedures  Clinical Anatomy: focuses on pathological changes during illness  Cross-sectional Anatomy: uses graphs from radiographic techniques to look at cross-sections of the body o CT o MRI Scans Levels of Structural Organization Chemical Level: atoms combine to form small molecules and larger macromolecules o Atom: building blocks of life o Molecules: ex. Water and Carbon Dioxide o Macromolecules: Carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids  Hydrogen + oxygen + nitrogen = 99% of the body Cellular Level: cells are comprised of molecules o smallest living units in the body o Cellular Organelles Tissue Level: similar types of cells with a common function combine to form tissues o Epithelial o Muscle o Nerve o Connective Organ Level: more than one tissue type combined to form organs (combinations of tissues) Organ System Level: organs that work closely together combined to form an organ system, to accomplish a common purpose o There are eleven organ systems Human Organism (organismal level): highest level of structural organization o Combination of all organ systems working together to sustain human life The eleven organ systems  Integumentary System: forms the epidermis and the dermis, skin o Provides protection and temperature control o Thick = palms of hands and soles of feet o Thin = hairy  Hair follicles, nails, sweat glands (sudoriferous), and oil glands (sebaceous)  Skeletal System: Protects and supports Organs o Framework for muscles o Stores minerals o Location of blood cell formation  Muscular System: produces motion o Maintains posture and produces heat  Nervous System: control center o Directs immediate responses to stimuli o Coordinates other organ systems  Endocrine System: made of glands o Secrete hormones that regulate other organ systems  Metabolism  Growth  Reproduction  Cardiovascular System: made of the heart, blood vessels, and blood o Transports materials with in the body  Respiratory Gases, Nutrients, and Wastes  Lymphoid System (and immune): made of lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs, lymphocytes, lymphoid tissue o Returns leaked fluid to blood o Protects against pathogens and disease o Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)  Lymphoid organs are: lymph nodes, thymus, spleen  Respiratory System: made of nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs o Maintains the bloods oxygen supply o Removes carbon dioxide by delivering air to lungs  Alveoli: air sacs of lungs  Digestive System: made of gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal) and accessory structures o Processes food and absorbs nutrients  Urinary System: made of kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra o Eliminates excess water, salts, nitrogenous wastes o Regulates water, electrolytes, and acid based balance of blood  Reproductive System: Made of testes (male) and ovaries (female), accessory organs, external genitalia o Produces sex cells and hormones for producing offspring o Supports embryonic development Anatomical Position Anatomical Position: person standing upright, arms at sides, palms facing forward (pinkies touching thighs), feet flat, face straight ahead o Supine: lying down face up o Prone : lying down face down Axial Region: head, neck, & torso Appendicular Region: upper and lower limbs (extremities) Orientation & Directional Terms  Superior(cranial or cephalic): above  Inferior(caudal): below  Medial: toward the midline  Lateral: toward the side  Superficial(external): toward the surface  Deep(internal): toward the core  Ventral (or anterior): to the front  Dorsal (or posterior): to the back  Proximal: near the trunk  Distal: away from the trunk  Craniad: Toward the head  Caudad: toward the “tail”  Ipsilateral: same side of the body  Contralateral: on the other half of the body Regional Terms  Cephalon (cephalic) : area of head  Cervicis (cervical) : neck region  Thoracis (thoracic) : chest region  Brachium (brachial) : upper arm  Antebrachium (antebrachial) : forearm  Carpus (carpal) : wrist  Manus (manual) : hand o We have 56 phalanges  Pollicis (pollex) : thumb  Abdomen (abdominal) : torso  Umbilicus (umbilical) : belly button  Pelvis (pelvic) : hips  Pubis (pubic) : genital region  Inguen (inguinal) : groin  Lumbus (lumbar) : lower back  Gluteus ( gluteal) : buttocks  Femur (femoral) : thigh  Patella (patellar) : kneecap  Crus (crural) : anterior leg—from knee to ankle  Sura (sural) : calf  Tarsus (tarsal) : ankle  Pes (pedal) : foot  Planta (plantar) : sole of foot  Hallucis (hallux) : big toe Body Planes  Frontal Plane (coronal) : lies vertically and divides body into front and back portions  Transverse Plane (horizontal) : lies horizontally and divides body into top and lower portions o Cross sections  Sagittal Plane : lies vertically and divides body into right and left portions o Midsagittal Plane (median) : if the portions are equivalent o Parasagittal Plane : unequal portions Body Cavities and Membranes  Dorsal Body Cavity o Cranial : in the skull (cranium), encases brain o Spinal : in vertebral column, encloses spinal cord  Ventral Body Cavity (coelom) : provides protection, allows organ movement, prevents friction o Thoracic : above diaphragm; heart, lungs, blood vessels; surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest wall  Pleural Cavities : right and left cavities, encloses lungs  Parietal Pleura : (thin membrane; lines chest walls) of serous membrane  Visceral Pleura : (thin membrane that adheres to lungs) of serous membrane  Serous Fluid : fills pleural cavity between layers of serous membrane  Mediastinal Cavity (mediastinum) : central cavity; band of organs; between pleural cavities; heart, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels  Pericardial Cavity : encloses heart o Parietal Pericardium : (thin membrane that lines pericardial walls) of serous membrane o Visceral Pericardium : (thin membrane that adheres to heart’s surface) of serous membrane o Serous Fluid : fills pericardial cavity between layers of serous membrane o Abdominopelvic Cavity : lies below diaphragm; divided into superior and inferior parts (many surrounded by peritoneal cavity)  Abdominal Cavity : superior part; liver, stomach, small intestine, spleen, kidneys; extends from diaphragm; above sacrum  Peritoneum : serous membrane o Parietal Peritoneum : (thin membrane that lines wall) of serous membrane o Visceral Peritonium : ( thin membrane that adheres to abdominopelvic organs) of serous membrane  Retroperitoneal : includes kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, ureters because they are behind the abdominopelvic cavity  Pelvic Cavity : inferior part; enclosed by pelvis; bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum Abdominopelvic Quadrants  My right is patient’s left o Right upper quadrant (RUQ) o Right lower quadrant (RLQ) o Left upper quadrant (LUQ) o Left lower quadrant (LLQ) Abdominopelvic Regions  Created by two transverse planes and two parasagittal planes (tic-tac-toe grid) o Umbilical Region : center square o Hypochondriac Regions : right and left superior lateral regions o Epigastric Region : mid- and above umbilical region o Lumbar Regions : left and right middle lateral regions o Hypogastric Region : middle and below umbilical region o Inguinal (Iliac) Regions : right and left below lateral regions Additional Terms  Absorption : route that substances can enter the body; dependent on catabolic reactions  Adaptability: long-term responsiveness  Adaptation : change in living organisms that allow then to live successfully in an environment  Differentiation : process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell  Excretion : removing metabolic waste  Secretion: intake of a substance  Growth : increase in quantity over time (increase in size or number of individual cells)  Metabolism : chemical reactions that occur in organisms to live o Anabolism : construction of molecules via metabolic pathways o Catabolism: breakdown of molecules via metabolic pathways; releases energy  Digestion  Reproduction: new individual organisms are produced o Essential to continue life  Responsiveness: ability to change activity or functioning (irritability)


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