First notes after Exam 1
First notes after Exam 1 BIO 304
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Casey on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 304 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Garrie Landry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Economic Botany in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 02/01/16
Key Box: Feb. 2 nd ***: Know for test besides definitions Plant Genetics ***: Definition 1. Variation: ** **: Word origin A. Natural Selection- fit and suitable to survive and reproduced, survival ***: Titles of the fittest B. Artificial Selection- “Human selection”- manipulation of genes, choosing certain individuals to reproduce a. Ex: how we domesticated animals, choose and selected certain features to create different pet breeds, etc. 2. Inherited Variation- gene that can be passed on to the next generation -- *Natural and Artificial depend on inherited variation 3. 3 aspects of plant reproduction that have contributed to plant domestication: A. Asexual reproduction a. No sex involved- Ex: meristems- cutting a leaf off of a plant and it grows a new identical plant (method of cloning) i. Ex: Every golden delicious apple came from one tree! All the associated trees came from one original tree B. Ability of plants to inbreed a. Inbreeding- No outside genetic material 1. Ex: reproduction from one plant that has both male and female sexes (perfect plant) can do this. 2. Ariabian coffee- had a monopoly because they would soak the beans in hot water in order to prevent the widespread of their special plant. It then somehow traveled and they lost their monopoly ii. 3 different types of inbreeding: 1. Self-fertilization- self compatible a. Ex: buy one tomato, fertilizes own stigmas, produces many offspring 2. Sib x Sibcross- (Sib=sibling) “incest is best”, compatible with another offspring of the same parent plant a. Ex: offspring from one individual breed together 3. Backcross- cross offspring back with parents plant iii. Function of inbreeding= Uniform varieties of a plant iv. *** A lot of plants are self-incompatible: self would not respond to itself, needs another to reproduce, exchange pollen with partner 1. Ex: mini avocado plant C. Plant with multiple number of chromosomes a. Humans only have 46 chromosomes, 2N= 2(23) Diploid i. Humans and animals cannot handle more or less than the chromosomes we have , see above b. Plants can handle more i. The more chromosomes a plant has the more robust and vigorous the plant 1. Gene- a distinct unit of heredity; a portion of the DNA chain 2. Chromosome- complex molecules that are composed of DNA- each set of chromosomes have 2 sets of genes a. Different form of gene: Allele- alternative state of a given gene i. Homozygous- both sets/pairs of genes are the same ii. Heterozygous- 2 alleles are different in the individual 1. It depends upon the interaction of the 2 alleles 2. Can be genetically different, but still look the same as the parent 3. 3 types of reactions: a. Dominant – suppresses effects of another gene- the one that shows i. Ex: red flower b. Recessive- requires both to be recessive in order to visibly show i. Ex: white flower c. Co-Dominant- neither one could be fully expressed or suppressed, so they blend i. Ex: pink flower 3. Phenotype- physical expression a. There can only be one phenotype b. Ex: Can either be a red flower, a white flower, or a pink flower—cannot be all three at once 4. Genotype- genetic makeup a. There can be many/multiple genotypes b. Ex: Has all the different genes between the flowers
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