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World Music Week 2

by: Danielle Notetaker

World Music Week 2 MUSC 3600

Marketplace > University of Utah > Music > MUSC 3600 > World Music Week 2
Danielle Notetaker
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Notes from week 2 of MUSC 3600
World Music
Cathryn Clayton
Class Notes
world music, week 2




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Monday February 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 3600 at University of Utah taught by Cathryn Clayton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 269 views. For similar materials see World Music in Music at University of Utah.


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Date Created: 02/01/16
World Music – Week 2 – Chapter 1 & 2 January 19, 2016 CH 01 OUTLINE  I. WHAT IS MUSIC? o A. Silence is more often than not a relative concept—sound is ubiquitous o B. Music can be defined as organized sound that is meaningful to people within a specific time and place.  1. Some define music as organized sound with a melody  2. Others define music by rhythm  3. Closely related music cultures can also categorize the same sounds differently  a. Inuit define their katajjaq as a vocal game; however, closely related Chukchi and Ainu people consider similar songs to be music  II. CHARACTERISTICSOF SOUND o A. Quality: distinctiveness of a particular voice or instrument, alsocalled tone color or timbre.  1. Sound Sources: The Voice  a. Vibrato: a purposeful vibration of the tone  b. Straight tone: a sound with little or no vibrato  c. Raspy: rough or gruff in quality in a singing voice  d. Chest voice: produces a low, powerful, throaty vocal production; this vocal quality is often heard in rock music  e. Head voice: produces a light,high tone that resonates in the head  f. Falsetto: the male head voice, produced by singing in a high register above the normal male singing range  g. Nasal quality: quality produced by using the sinuses and mask of the face as sound resonators  2. Sound Sources: Instruments  a. Gamelan: large Indonesian instrumental ensembles  b. Steeldrums:Trinidad, instruments made from modified oil drums, known as pans  c. Shakuhachi: Japanese flute associated with court and Zen monks  d. Different instruments may be closely identified with either men or women.  e. Instruments that are markers of ethnic and national identity canattain even deeper associations as people emigrate (Armenian duduk).  f. Instruments often carry prestige or status related to their historical roles in society (Ethiopian baganna).  3. The Study and Classification of Musical Instruments  a. Organology: the study of musical instruments  b. Sachs-Hornbostel system: four-part classification system basedon the means by which instruments produce sound (fifth category added later) o i. Idiophones: self-sounding instruments; the material of which they are made is set into vibration o ii. Chordophones: sound source is one or more vibrating strings  (1) Lutes: neck and body parallel to the strings.  (2) Harp: soundboard to which strings are attached at an angle  (3) Lyre: two distinctive arms and crossbar running between themto which the strings are attached  (4) Zither: instrument with a flat body to which strings are attached parallel to the body o iii. Aerophones: Instruments in which an enclosed column of air vibrates to produce sound; have an opening or mouthpiece through which the player blows air  (1) Endblown: blown through a hole (mouthpiece) at the end  (2)Transverse: blown through a hole on the side  (3) Free reeds have enclosed reeds through which air is pushed.  (4) Free aerophones act directly on surrounding air without enclosing it. o iv. Membranophones: Characterized by a membrane (drumhead) stretched across one or both ends of the instrument. Classified by:  (1) Shape: cylindrical, bowl (kettle), hourglass, or goblet  (2) How membranes are attached(glued, tacked, laced, etc.)  (3) Ways in which sound is produced (hands or sticks) o v. Electrophones: Instruments whose sound is produced or modified electronically o B. Intensity: The loudness or softness of a sound  1. Volume or dynamics  2. Can be measured by a decibel meter  3. Many music traditions have terms to describe intensity levels  a. Balinese gamelan o i. Keras refers to a strong, loud sound o ii. Manis is a sweet, soft sound  b. Western classical music o i. Forte refers to a loud sound o ii. Piano refers to a soft sound o C. Pitch: The relative highness or lowness of a sound, determined by frequency of the sound vibration  1. Hearing and Comparing Pitch Systems and Scales  a. The overall compass of pitchesfrom highest to lowest that an instrument or voice can produce is called range.  b. The distance between pitches is called an interval.  c. A set of pitches arranged in order of ascent and descent is calleda scale. o i. raga o ii. mode o iii. pentatonic scale  2. Melody and Processes of Ornamentation  a. Melody: Organized pitches in meaningful units o i. Conjunct motion: Melody moves in close and regular intervals in a stepwise pattern. o ii. Disjunct motion: Melody moves mainly in larger intervals. o iii. Melodies can be decorated or ornamented. o iv. Melodies are made up of phrases. o D. Duration: The time element of music  1. Pulse: A regular beat, like a heartbeat  2. Rhythm: General temporal organization of music  3. Tempo: Music's rate of speed  4. Hearing and Comparing RhythmicSystems  a. Meter: Hierarchical durational system divided into groups of beats called measures o i. Simple: Two,three, or four beats per measure o ii. Compound: Six, nine, or twelve beats per measure  b. Syncopation: Rhythmic effect that provides an unexpected accent, often by temporarily unsettling the meter through a change in the established pattern of stressed and unstressed beats. o i. Many cultures use irregular or asymmetrical meters. o ii. Some music is so flexible in its rhythmic organization that it is said to have freerhythm.  III. LISTENING FOR MUSICAL TEXTURE AND FORM o A. Hearing and Comparing Textures  1. Texture is the vertical structure of music,the perceived relationship of simultaneous musical sounds.  a. Monophony: Individual voice or instrument is performing alone (solo), or more than one voice or instrument sings or plays exactly the same melody  b. Biphony: Texture with two distinct lines, the lower sustaining a continuous pitch (drone) while the other performs a more elaborate melody above it  c. Homophony: Texture with a melody supported by other vocal or instrumental parts, all of which move along in roughly the same rhythm.  d. Polyphony: Combination of two or more different melodic lines o i. Polyrhythms: Several contrasting rhythmic patterns played simultaneously  e. Heterophony: Two or more voices or instruments produce almost the same melody at almost the same time; the parts are often ornamented differently. o B. Hearing and Comparing Forms  1. Form: The shape or structure of music  a. Strophic: Song structure in which all verses of text are set to thesame melody  b. Refrain: Fixed stanza of text and music that recurs between verses of a strophic song  c. Many forms also have names o i. Ballad o ii. Middle Eastern sama'i  IV. PROCESSES OF MUSICAL CREATIVITY: COMPOSITION, PERFORMANCE, IMPROVISATION o A. Composition: Process of creating music o B. Improvisation: Spontaneous creation of music during performance  V. GEOGRAPHIES OF SOUND o A. Soundscapes that occur in the same geographic location often overlap and influence one another.  1. Musical styles move to different locations and have effects on other styles in different ways.  2. Geographical Fugue  VI. CONCLUSION CH 02 OUTLINE  I. INTRODUCTION:SETTING THE STAGE o A. Setting encompasses multiple contexts.  1. Soundscapes within several urban settings  a. The global rural-urban population balance has tipped in favor ofcities.  2. Most communities are complex environments.  II. CASE STUDY: ACCRA, GHANA o A. Hearing Highlife in Accra  1. Highlife is a musical style.  a. The name originated during the 1920s.  b. Bands played popular tunes for upper-class audiences.  2. Unites several streams of the Ghanaian musical past  a. Sea chanteys and folk songs  b. Military bands  c. Piano music and church hymns  3. Central to Ghanaian life o B. Multicultural Accra  1. Location makes it a magnet for cultural exchange.  a. Incorporated into the British Empire  b. English is the official language.  2. Settlements by the Ga people in the fifteenth century  a. Portuguese were the firstEuropeans.  b. They were followed by the Dutch,Danish, and English.  3. Ga ethnic community lent distinctive cuisine and traditional music.  a. Homowo ("Mocking Hunger") Festival o i. Dance o ii. Drumming accompaniment  b. Various other festivals  c. Elaborate funerals o i. Expensive; can tax the resources of a family o ii. Full display of music and food o iii. Voluntary funeral associations: Milo Mianoewo o iv. Three-day affair  d. Agbadza dance o i. Popular social dance performed byEwe men and women, sometimes at funerals o ii. Agbadza rhythms are, for many listeners, the most familiar aspects of the music.  4. Drums and their music are linked to other Ghanaian ethnic groups.  a. Agbadza rhythms associated with the Ewe people  b. Atumpan: a drum associated with the Akan people o i. Used for ceremonies by chiefs o ii. "Male" and "female" drums played by one drummer o iii. Also played as talking drums, used in the past for communication o C. Music in Ghanaian Christian Life  1. A substantial amount of musicmaking in Accra occurs within thecontext of organized religious life.  a. Churches on virtually every block  b. The music unites Western musical influences with Ewe rhythmic complexity.  c. Many churches in Accra hold healing rituals. o i. The Kwabenya Prayer Camp of theBethel Prayer Ministry International Church o ii. Songs, accompanied by instruments, are the main vehicle through which healing is accomplished. o D. Accra's Global Connections  1. The complex blend of local and international give the city's music a distinctive, cosmopolitan flavor.  a. Many different musics can be heard on Ghanaian radio.  b. Accra maintains an active and diverse cassette culture.  c. A number of musical ensembles reinforce national identity.  III. CASE STUDY: MUMBAI, INDIA o A. Mumbai has been the regional capital since India's independence from Britain in 1947.  1. A heterogeneous and global city: first settled by the Koli people, ruled later by Hindu and Muslim kingdoms, occupied by various foreignforces  a. Various linguistic,ethnic, and regional neighborhoods  b. Music ranges from distinctive local practices to national and international genres.  2. Despite its size and complexity,people acknowledge a sense of unity.  a. Various religions, ethnic backgrounds, economic statuses  b. Unity manifest in and supported by musical life o B. The Ganesh Chaturthi Festival  1. Hindu Ganesh Chaturthi festival leads off the pan-Indian festival season every fall.  a. Hindus are the majority in Mumbai, but there are many Muslims and Christians.  b. Community-wide festival promoting solidarity and independence from the British  c. Marks the birthday of Lord Ganesh, a popular Hindu deity o C. Music of Mumbai's Ethnic Communities  1. The Koli people, who were the first residents of the area, continue to be a presence in Mumbai.  a. Koli traditional culture is perpetuated.  b. Folk song recordings are distributed and broadcast.  2. Folk songs in Marathi are heard everywhere in Mumbai.  a. Lyrics address universal topics and subjects of local concern  b. Some are reintroduced and popularized through electronic remixes.  3. North Indian classical music is also actively represented in Mumbai.  4. European classical music has exerted an influence sinceBritish arrival.  a. National Centre for thePerforming Arts  b. Bombay Chamber Orchestra o D. The Mumbai Film Industry  1. Film music is everywhere in Mumbai.  2. Indian film industry has mushroomed: Bollywood  a. Mass-marketed films known as "masala movies," stereotyped, romantic plots with elaborate song and dance interludes throughout  b. Actors became superstars; "playback singers" also greatly admired  3. Early films used the Hindi and Urdu languages of Northern India.  a. Urdu language song genre, the ghazal, was very influential.  b. Strophic song accompanied by sarangi, tabla, and harmonium  4. Popular music from abroad and the international music industryhave deeply influenced Indian film music.  a. Film song Mum-bhai from Bombay Boys o i. Reflects musical style of gangsta rap o ii.Text is in local dialect with some English phrases  IV. CASE STUDY:BOSTON, USA o A. Why Boston?  1. Boston provides both a long history and exceptional ethnic, institutional, and musical diversity.  2. Boston provides a stimulating counterpoint to Accra and Mumbai.  3. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, musical life closely tied to England and Europe.  4. Many Boston neighborhoods are also home to different socioeconomic and ethnic groups.  a. Former minorities within the city's longtime mainly Euro-American population became a majority.  b. Multicultural mixture of peoples has transformed and gentrified the South End.  5. Boston has more institutions of higher learning than any other North American city. o B. What Elements Make Up Boston's Musical Life?  1. TheBoston Globe has a weekly musical calendar; provides a starting place for mapping musical Boston.  2. Genre categories for musical events include pop and rock; folk, world, and country; jazz, blues and cabaret,etc.  3. Early music, reggae o C. Where and When Is Music Performed?  1. Many soundscapes are associated with specific places and times.  a. Symphony Hall  b. Many other well-known performance spaces  c. Churches  d. Neighborhoods provide venues for many musical events.  2. Indoor and outdoor phenomena  a. Buskers in Harvard Square  b. City streets also provide a venue for special music events. o i. City Hall o ii. Boston Common and Public Garden o D. Who Makes the Music?  1. Irish  a. Immigration since the eighteenth century  b. Irish fiddling in pubs; bagpipes at civic and cultural events  c. Boston College's Gaelic Roots Festival each summer until 2003  d. Narrative songs,known as ballads, commemorate important events and memorable individuals. o i. The Ballad of Buddy McClean o ii. Simple and repetitive melody  2. Portuguese  a. From Portugal, Cape Verde Islands, and the Azores  b. A musical form popular with Bostonians of Portuguese descent is the fado. o i. Closely associated with the Portuguese capital, Lisbon o ii. Fado is sometimes compared with the blues. o iii. Portuguese Americans hear the fado largely through recordingsimported from Portugal. o iv. Amália Rodrigues is thought to have personified the fado.  3. Cape Verdeans  a. Cape Verde was a way station between Africa, Europe, and Americas during slave trade.  b. Early immigrants to America settled in NewEngland. o i. Cape Verdeans viewed as black in American society; language and culture kept them separate from African American community o ii. Distinctive culture expressed in food, music,and dance  c. Many Cape Verdean Americans have become prominent musicians o i. Maria de Barros was influenced by Cape Verdean, Latin American, and Caribbean styles. o E. Boston's Defining Musical Communities  1. Campus music  a. Many colleges and universities  b. New England Conservatory and Berklee College of Music  c. In the past, campus musical life mainly drew on Western music ensembles; avant- garde, popular, and international music has proliferated recently. o i. West African drumming at Tufts University o ii.North Indian and Senegalese music at MIT  d. Gamelan are prominent on many college campuses o i. Indonesian instrumental group  a. Instruments made of wood and bamboo, gongs, and instruments of xylophone type o ii. Major traditions from Java and Bali o iii. Gamelan is ubiquitous in Balinese life, has presence on college campuses around the world through Indonesia's colonial history.  a. Symbol of Indonesian culture and national identity  b. Many composers drawn to sound of gamelan  1. Music organized in rhythmic cycles  2. Polyphonic texture  3. Beating tones  4. Interlocking parts  2. Folk music  a. Traditional folk music and folk music revival  b. Boston's importance in the folk music world o i. Boston's long liberal tradition and its many colleges made it a magnetfor singer-songwriters. o ii. Over two hundred venues for live folk music performance in theBoston area o iii. M.T.A. Song  3. Early Music  a. Boston provided all the ingredients that allowed early music to flourish. o i. Magnet for professional musicians o ii. Many instrument builders  b. Early music ensembles incorporate diverse musical styles. o i. Early music andfolk music cultures can converge. o ii. Barbara Allen o F. Boston's Distinctive Musical Profile  1. All three of Boston's major music cultures—campus music,folk music, and early music—are local as well as international, with deep roots in Boston as well as connections to other places.  a. The campus music scene is the most heterogeneous.  b. The folk music revival is the most unified.  c. Early music frequently crosses over to folk and world music.  2. University town par excellence  V. CONCLUSION Video Notes – Tuvan Singer  Two tones, one voice  Simple accompaniment  Many oscillations in tone  Accompaniment and vocals are very similar and mimic each other in some ways Video Notes – Harmonic Series I  Harmonic Series is also known as overtone series  All sounds are produced by vibrating bodies which send out waves  If it is irregularly constituted (like the floor) emits irregular waves that we perceive as noise  If it is a consistent structure (piano strings) emits regular waves that we perceive as a musical tone  Energy in Vibratory Motion – technical term  Low C  We think we hear one tone, but we are simultaneouslyhearing a group of higher tones arranged in a specific pattern  These notes are a phenomenon that any pitch producing source vibrates not only as the whole object, but also in fractions of the object vibrating separately.  Infinitely divisible  The smaller the section, the higher the frequency o Overtones/harmonics o Sound together o Naturally less apparent than the fundamental  More faint the higher they are; lower = more apparent overtones Video Notes – Harmonic Series II  Overtones are a vital part of the fundamental o Tonic – has the function of establishing the tonal center of any given key o Dominant – aids in the establishment of the tonality based on a special relationship it has with the tonic o Overtones create a triad  The triad is the foundation of Western tonal music Notes - Overtone Series  How the scale arises from the overtone series o Imagine vibrations on a string that is fixed at both ends (Like a piano string) o Actual Vibration may be very complicated, but can be broken down into modes (basic units) of oscillation, each of which is a sine wave o Since the string is fixed at both ends, only sine waves that do not oscillate at the ends of the strings are allowed. (See picture below) Harmonic Frequency (Hz) Note Comments 1 131 C3 Fundamental 2 262 C4 1 Octave Higher 3 393 G4 A Fifth above C4 4 524 C5 2 Octaves above fundamental and a fourth above G4 5 655 E5 A Third above C5 6 786 G5 A Fifth above C5 Harms. 4,5,&6 form a major chord 7 917 almost B5b An overtone to avoid o The fixed ends of string only allow modes with certain wavelengths to appear o If the wave speed is constant and we take the frequency of the fundamental mode to be that of C3, the overtones will all be harmonically related (See table below) o Notes can be translated by an octave by multiplying ordividing the frequency by 2 o These overtones of one fundamental define the notes C, E, and G Notes – Overtones and Fundamentals or Can We Fix Niel?  Auto tune works by changing the frequency of the notes that the person sang Notes – Behind the Scenes  In music you almost never hear one sound at a time, but many layers put together to create a note o Think about the layers of a sandwich  They work together  Music can be made of many layers


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