Feb 4 Notes
Feb 4 Notes BIOL 2460 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mobolaji Arogundade on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2460 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Michelle L Badon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see NURSING MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
February 4, 2016 Notes Macromolecules are very large molecules (know the difference btwn macro and Micro). (know the macromolecules and their functions) All macromolecules are polymers (many) Made by joining small molecules together ATP- stores energy in the cell – there are 3 phosphates in adenosine triphosphate Made of a sugar ribose, purine, adenine and 3 phosphates Organic compounds (carbon)-produced by living things For major classes of biological importance Proteins Carbohydrates(Sugar)/Polysaccharides Nucleic acid Lipids (fats) Synthesis Dehydration synthesis- water is removed When the macromolecules are broken down into subunits, the reverse reaction takes place Hydrolysis- water is added back (reverse reaction of dehydration synthesis) Proteins- shapes life and its functions Predominant organic molecule in the cell Always synthesized from the N terminal end Wont function if it doesn’t have the right shape Proteins in the bacterial world-functions Speeds up chemical reactions in the cell Create the structure and shape of certain structures ex: ribosomes which are he protein building machinery in the cell Cause movement by flagella Takes nutrients to the cell Turns genes on and off Amino Acid Subunits Proteins are made of combination of 20 different amino acids Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Glycine -Gly All amino acids have an alpha carbon at one end & the carboxyl group is attached to this carbon Properties of protein depends on its shape Sidechains Whether or not an amino acid is polar, non-polar, or soluble and its shape is determined by its side chain Hydrophobic-hates water Hydrophilic- loves water Peptide Bonds Peptide bonds-unique bonds that are covalent Formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another AA (Amino acid) A protein is a long polypeptide chain Formed by dehydration synthesis Four levels of protein structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Enzymes-catalysts for chemical reactions. (All enzymes are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes). Protein denaturing Protein wont function without is proper shape When a protein is denatured, the bonds in the protein and the protein itself their shape Can be denatured through: change in pH or temperature (high temperature) Acids and Alcohols Some solvents/ disinfectants Bonds within protein Many bacteria can’t grow in high temperature conditions because their proteins are denatured Denaturation can be reversed in some cases EX: if the solvent is removed the protein may go back to its original shape Carbohydrates Common food source -organisms can get energy and make cellular materials Certain carbs are a food source for bacteria Source of nutrients and energy source Sugars form part of the bacteria cell walls- support/protection Common Features Saccharides- have a sweet taste (COH) Carbohydrates contain-C.H. O Polysaccharides-have a high molecular weight; linear or branched polymer units Oligosaccharides -short chains Disaccharides- ex: lactose and sucrose Monosaccharides- glucose, galactose and fructose Monosaccharides Classified by how many carbons they have (3-7) Sugars can be drawn in ring or linear form Disaccharides Made of two or more monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond btwn hydroxyl Polysaccharides Ex; glycogen - CHO storage PRODUCTS in animals and bacteria Made of 5 or more monosaccharides subunits Nucleic acid Carries genetic information in all cells Info is decoded into a sequence of amino acids in protein molecules Two types of nucleic acid: DNA & RNA (deoxyribose & ribose) DNA MASTER MOLECULE of the cell-all cell properties are determined by its DNA Coded in nucleotide sequence Nucleotides composed of three unites: nitrogen (contains ring base), deoxyribose and phosphate 4 different bases: two purines and two pyrimidines A-T. G-C. A-U (in RNA) T, C, U- Pyrimidine A-G- Purines Nucleotides Carry chemical energy in bonds Joined by covalent bonds
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