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Feb 4 Notes

by: Mobolaji Arogundade

Feb 4 Notes BIOL 2460 - 001

Mobolaji Arogundade

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About this Document

Here are the notes from today's class
Michelle L Badon
Class Notes
Microbiology, dr.badon, mirco
25 ?





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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mobolaji Arogundade on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2460 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Michelle L Badon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see NURSING MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
February 4, 2016 Notes Macromolecules are very large molecules (know the difference btwn macro and Micro). (know the macromolecules and their functions)  All macromolecules are polymers (many)  Made by joining small molecules together ATP- stores energy in the cell – there are 3 phosphates in adenosine triphosphate  Made of a sugar ribose, purine, adenine and 3 phosphates Organic compounds (carbon)-produced by living things For major classes of biological importance  Proteins  Carbohydrates(Sugar)/Polysaccharides  Nucleic acid  Lipids (fats) Synthesis  Dehydration synthesis- water is removed  When the macromolecules are broken down into subunits, the reverse reaction takes place  Hydrolysis- water is added back (reverse reaction of dehydration synthesis) Proteins- shapes life and its functions  Predominant organic molecule in the cell  Always synthesized from the N terminal end  Wont function if it doesn’t have the right shape Proteins in the bacterial world-functions  Speeds up chemical reactions in the cell  Create the structure and shape of certain structures ex: ribosomes which are he protein building machinery in the cell  Cause movement by flagella  Takes nutrients to the cell  Turns genes on and off Amino Acid Subunits  Proteins are made of combination of 20 different amino acids  Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins  Glycine -Gly  All amino acids have an alpha carbon at one end & the carboxyl group is attached to this carbon  Properties of protein depends on its shape Sidechains  Whether or not an amino acid is polar, non-polar, or soluble and its shape is determined by its side chain  Hydrophobic-hates water  Hydrophilic- loves water Peptide Bonds  Peptide bonds-unique bonds that are covalent  Formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another AA (Amino acid)  A protein is a long polypeptide chain  Formed by dehydration synthesis Four levels of protein structure  Primary  Secondary  Tertiary  Quaternary Enzymes-catalysts for chemical reactions. (All enzymes are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes). Protein denaturing  Protein wont function without is proper shape  When a protein is denatured, the bonds in the protein and the protein itself their shape  Can be denatured through:  change in pH or temperature (high temperature)  Acids and Alcohols  Some solvents/ disinfectants  Bonds within protein  Many bacteria can’t grow in high temperature conditions because their proteins are denatured  Denaturation can be reversed in some cases EX: if the solvent is removed the protein may go back to its original shape Carbohydrates  Common food source -organisms can get energy and make cellular materials  Certain carbs are a food source for bacteria  Source of nutrients and energy source  Sugars form part of the bacteria cell walls- support/protection Common Features  Saccharides- have a sweet taste (COH)  Carbohydrates contain-C.H. O  Polysaccharides-have a high molecular weight; linear or branched polymer units  Oligosaccharides -short chains  Disaccharides- ex: lactose and sucrose  Monosaccharides- glucose, galactose and fructose Monosaccharides  Classified by how many carbons they have (3-7)  Sugars can be drawn in ring or linear form Disaccharides  Made of two or more monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond btwn hydroxyl Polysaccharides  Ex; glycogen - CHO storage PRODUCTS in animals and bacteria  Made of 5 or more monosaccharides subunits Nucleic acid  Carries genetic information in all cells  Info is decoded into a sequence of amino acids in protein molecules  Two types of nucleic acid: DNA & RNA (deoxyribose & ribose) DNA  MASTER MOLECULE of the cell-all cell properties are determined by its DNA  Coded in nucleotide sequence  Nucleotides composed of three unites: nitrogen (contains ring base), deoxyribose and phosphate  4 different bases: two purines and two pyrimidines  A-T. G-C. A-U (in RNA)  T, C, U- Pyrimidine  A-G- Purines Nucleotides  Carry chemical energy in bonds  Joined by covalent bonds


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