Courts WeeK one Lecture Notes
Courts WeeK one Lecture Notes Crju 3700
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khaila Coissiere on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crju 3700 at Georgia State University taught by Prof Johnson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see American criminal court in Criminal Justice at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Chapter 1 – Courts, Crime, and Controversy Thursday, January 14 How are courts related to rest of CJ System? Fragmented - individual parts Interdependent - overlapping parts Tensions and conflicts Organization of U.S. Court System Dual court system - state and federal courts are separate from one another Each case is handled in the same jurisdiction as that of law(s) violated What are major types of courts found in U.S.? Federal Courts State Courts Supreme Court of US Appellate court of last resort (AKA supreme court) Circuit Courts of Intermediate courts of appeal in 39 Appeals states District Courts Trial Courts of General Jurisdiction Magistrate Courts Trial Couts of Limited Jurisdiction Court Structure Major types of courts in U.S. o Trial courts o Appellate courts o US Supreme Court Trial Courts Trials are held here, jurors sworn, and witnesses are questioned Lower courts - misdemeanors and early stage felonies Major trial courts - major felonies Appellate Courts Review decisions made by trial courts No trials are held No jurors employed No witnesses heard Lawyers argue over previous cases US Supreme Court Chapter 1 – Courts, Crime, and Controversy Thursday, January 14 Court of last resort Cases are hand selected Hears fewer than 85 cases a year Usually only hears cases impacting society as a whole Actors in the Courthouse The most important actors in courthouse include o Prosecutors o Defense attorneys o Judges o Defendants o Victim o Bailif o Jurors The Steps in a Typical Felony Prosecution Crime o Felony/misdemeanor Arrest Initial appearance Bail Grand jury Preliminary hearing Arraignment Discovery Pretrial motions Plea negotiation Trial Presentence investigation If a guilty verdict, sentencing Possible appeal Laws on the Books and Law in Action Law on the Books o Legal and structural components of the judiciary Law in Action o Focuses on human factors governing the actual application of law Models of Criminal Justice Crime control model o Conservative o Proposes harsher penalties Due process model o Liberal o Advocates social programs aimed at reducing crime by reducing poverty Chapter 1 – Courts, Crime, and Controversy Thursday, January 14 Crime Control Model Individual responsibility Self-control Discipline Quickly determine innocence or guilt Informal fact-finding Speed and finality of courts Courts hinder efective law enforcement and provide inadequate protection to society Due Process Model Protecting rights of individual Social influences Formal fact-finding o Careful consideration of each case Considers the court to find error on the part of law enforcement and prosecutors Community based sentencing
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