HIST10, WK 1 of lecture notes
HIST10, WK 1 of lecture notes Hist 10
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christien Ng on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Greece Minoans 2000-1400BCE Myceneans 1600-1100BCE Mycenae Pylos Dark Age 1100-800BCE Archaic Age 800-500BCE Phonecians Bronze Iron Hoplite POLIS Oligarchy Sparta Democracy Athens Greece Economically Poor Had very little resources Become friendly with neighbors in order to trade resources (Egypt, Mesopotamia) 3 main staples of the Greek Economy: olive oil, wine, pottery o Heavily depended on surrounding civilizations for development Therefore they were able to borrow technologies (eg invention of the wheel) Minoans The first civilization that arose in Greece (2000BC) o Minoans (2000-1400BC) ~600yrs o Began in the Island of Crete o Although in Greece, they were not Greek; did not speak Greek, have Greek culture, or Greek religion o Relied on Trade to acquire the goods they needed such as food in order to feed their population o Disappeared suddenly; most likely conquered Myceneans 1600-1100BC Integrated into Greece ~(1600BC) Were the first Greeks; spoke Greek, had Greek culture & religion They were taught by the Minoans: o How to engage in trade, art, architecture, etc Probably the reason Minoans ceased to exist Also big on trading Relied on outside help to regulate its society Although they were one people; sharing a culture, religion, they were not politically unified o They were divided into independent city-states which were constantly at war with one another o Historically, the Greeks were never able to form a unified state Root of Greek Mythology 1100BC: all Mycenean cities were taken over by barbaric tribes from the North and were then left with nothing; leading to a Dark Age Mycenae- biggest city of Mycenaens Pylos- written accounts of what the king was going to do to defend his town According to records, the king called up his entire army and entire navy, expecting attacks from land and sea. Resorted to human sacrifice All were destroyed by what we think are barbarian tribes Had no culture Lowkey savages Always on the move from one place to another, animals were main food source Best at war Dark Age (1100BC-800BC) Bronze Age ends About 95% of the people gone; either killed off or fled elsewhere Whole cities were destroyed and never repopulated/rebuilt; such as Mycenae (200,000people) Mycenae art and architecture stops, people forgot how to read and write Archaic Age (800BC-500BC) Age of dramatic recovery for the Greek world o Population begins to rise dramatically o Number and sizes of cities increases dramatically o Begin to trade with the outside world again As a result of growing population and increased trade, Greeks began to send out colonies into the unknown world o As they expand, they discover more technologies During the archaic age, the Greeks meet a group of peoples known as the Phonecians The Phonecians had their own system of writing called the alphabet. Before Phonecians, Greeks used a pictograph system where a picture = a word Phonecian system had 22 symbols, each representing a sound in a language Greeks made it their own, changing it up a little bit, into the Greek Alphabet o Which was later used by the Romans to use in their alphabet Bronze Until the Archaic Age, the main metal used by the Greeks was bronze They went into battle wearing bronze armor and carrying bronze weapons In the Greek world, the state did not pay for the supplies and weapons for its soldiers; each soldier had to pay for their own stuff Bronze was incredibly expensive; very few people could afford this type of "luxury" It was made by combining copper and tin If you were too poor, you were ineligible for military services o Therefore Greek armies were very small In the Archaic Age, Iron was introduced to the Greeks Iron->Hoplite The addition of iron, the hoplite soldier was created Hoplite- a soldier equipped with iron helmet, breastplate, shield, sword (but mainly used spear) Iron was far cheaper than bronze Suddenly Greek armies were a lot bigger and battles also The discovery of iron was important politically Direct correlation bt military service and political power o the more armed soldiers one has, the higher its political power POLIS-tiny independent country (state) governed by an assembly of citizens ~1000 POLIS' in the Greek world Were not run by a king, elected leader; each POLIS was run by an assembly of citizens o If you were a citizen in a POLIS, you had freedom of speech, right to attend to an assembly, right to make proposals in the assembly, right to join in the debate of the assembly, and the right to vote in the assembly; worlds first example of a democratic gov Males had most of the say in a POLIS Women were intellectually inferior and could not make lively decisions o They were considered citizens, but were not allowed to vote "aliens" (someone from outside the city) were not allowed to participate Slavery Not only foreigners but also their fellow Greeks Even if a slave was free, they would never get citizenship rights Could not vote 500BC 2 types of POLIS': Oligarchy- rule by the few Most common Women, aliens, slaves, poor male citizens had no political rights Only hoplites (military & political power) Sparta is most known for oligarchy 10% of pop had citizenship Democracy o Athens is most famous democracy o If you were too poor to serve as a hoplite, you would then be required to row the boats (tri in the army o All male citizens, regardless of political wealth, had political rights o Only 12% had power By 500BC the Greeks had developed a system of a POLIS. For those that were allowed to participate, it was the best system bc they themselves were free men who ran their own affairs. This provided the Greeks w great patriotism. Willing to die in order to protect the POLIS and their political rights Would later be attacked by the Persians