corrections week 2 lecture notes
corrections week 2 lecture notes CRJU 3310
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khaila Coissiere on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRJU 3310 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Brent Teasdale in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Corrections in Criminal Justice at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Week Two January 19-22 History of Corrections Early Forms of Corrections Hammurabic code (1750 BC) o Developed in Babylon by King Hammurabi o 1st comprehensive statement of prohibited behavior; however no list of punishment o 1st written codified system of laws o Most crimes punished by death Lex talionis - "law of retaliation" o Gave guidance for vengeance of wrongs o Based on principle that punishment should correspond in degree and kind to offense - "eye for an eye" Wergild (1200 AD) o Developed in England as a response to bloody wars of retribution between feudal lords o Utilized payment of money as system of compensation for wrongs committed The rise of criminal law The benefit of clergy o If you didn’t have money, could seek out religious compensation o Occurred through physical form of suffering Forms of punishment in early courts o Galley slavery o Imprisonment - least used o Transportation/deportation o Corporal punishment and death 1st house of corrections born in 1553 The Classical School Cesare Beccaria (1764) o Basis of all social action must be utilitarian concept of greatest good for greatest number of people o Crime must be considered an injury to society o Prevention of crime is more important than punishment for crimes o Secret accusations and torture must be abolished. Further, the accused has right to a speedy trial and to humane treatment before trial, and to present evidence on their behalf o Purpose of punishment is crime deterrence, not retaliation. Certainty and swiftness of punishment best secure this goal, not severity o Imprisonment should be more widely employed and better physical quarters should be provided with prisoners classified by age, sex, and degree of criminality o Helped shape US corrections Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) Utilitarianism: aim of all action should be greatest possible balance of pleasure over pain Week Two January 19-22 Utilitarianism and Corrections Bentham viewed crime as product of hedonistic calculus. Behavior results from type of math where individuals weighs costs and benefits Bentham viewed criminals as somewhat childlike or unbalanced, unable to control their passions by reason Bentham argued that punishment should reflect balance between preventing harm for society and increasing good in offender The effect of B&B Bentham and Beccaria had major impacts on way CJ is organized in our society Week Two January 19-22 Recent History US Corrections Timeline Colonial period (1600s-1790s) Penitentiary period (1790s-1860s) Reformatory movement (1870s-1890s) Progressive era (1890s-1930s) Medical model (1930s-1960s) Community model (1960s-1970s) Crime control model (1970s-present) Colonial Period Laws transferred from England and adapted to local conditions o New England, puritans punished violations of religious laws 1682 - PA adopts "The Great Law" based on humane Quaker principles o Emphasized hard labor in house of corrections o Remained in place until 1718 Anglican code o Listed 13 capital offenses with theft only felony not punishable by death Penitentiaries America was sparsely populated and rural In 1790 US total population < 4million o No city had more than 50,000 inhabitants Massive population growth (1790-1830) Shifts in population drive shifts in corrections birth of penitentiary - late 1700s early 1800s Role of enlightenment and declaration of independence o Both emphasized importance of individualism and perfectibility of humans through rationalism American Penitentiaries 1790: Philadelphia's walnut street jail Conceived as place were offenders could be isolated from bad influences o Engage in productive labor o Reflect on past misdeeds, repent and be reformed o Pennsylvania and NY systems had become world famous as innovators in the field The Pennsylvania Movement Quakers implemented their humanistic and religious ideas in penitentiaries Inner light (God's grace) is available to all, but must be individually achieved Penance and silent contemplation provided means to move from state of sin to perfection Separate confinement: hallmark of PA system o Each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates with all activities carried on in the cells Week Two January 19-22 Prisoners wouldn’t be treated vengefully but should be convinced that through hard and selective forms of suffering, they could change their lives Solitary confinement would prevent further corruption In isolation, offenders would reflect on their transgressions and repent Solitary confinement is itself punishment, because humans are naturally social Solitary confinement is economical, because it would not take long for prisoners to repent fewer guards would be needed and costs of clothing would be lower The New York System Known for congregate system o Inmates were held in insolation at night but worked with fellow prisoners during day under rule of silence Convinced that convicts were incorrigible the warden determined that industrial efficiency was overriding purpose of prison Focus on providing good work habits and preventing recidivism, not on rehabilitating the inmate's characters Assembly line model: hallmark of NY system PA vs. NY Which system is better? PA system (solitary confinement) aimed to create honest people NY system (congregate system) aimed to create obedient citizens NY argued tat inmates must first be broken then re-socialized PA renounced degradation and physical punishments NY system used today most efficient The Reformative Movement By mid 1800s, both PA and NY systems were largely considered failures Within 40 years of being built, penitentiaries had become overcrowded, understaffed, and minimally financed Discipline was lax, brutality was common, and administrators were viewed as corrupt Reformatory movement was born in response to failure of prison system Cincinnati, 1870 National Prison Association met in Cincinnati in 1870 New philosophy proposed for operation of prison o Inmate change - reformation rewarded by release o Indeterminate sentencing - the key Based on conception of crime as a moral disease Hold people until changed was shown Cincinnati and Reforms Reformatory movement had some lasting impact on correctional practice o Indeterminate sentencing Week Two January 19-22 o Classification of offenders o Rehabilitative programs o Parole o Individualized programs of treatment, work, and education The Progressive Era Progressives came from upper-class backgrounds o Optimistic about solving social problems Main strategies o Improve conditions in social environments o Rehabilitate individual offenders Focus on needs of offender The Medical Model Notion that criminals are mentally ill has dominated the conventional wisdom on criminal behavior 1930s saw the implementation of "the medical model" Crime is a biological problem The Community Model Attica riot in NY - bloodiest one day encounter between Americans since civil war Created view that prisons are counterproductive and unjust Community corrections presented as an alternative o Prisons = antithetical to reintegration of offenders into community (goal of CJ) The Crime Control Model Public concern over rising crime rates (late 1960s) Simultaneously, serious doubt about possibility of rehabilitation Crime control is born (get tough/war) o Based on assumption that crime can be controlled or reduced by more use of incarceration and other forms of strict supervision
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