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Geo 102-002

by: Anushka Adhikari

Geo 102-002 GEO 102-002

Anushka Adhikari
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

This notes cover what was taught on the first class. The red highlights are mostly important for exam.
Introductory Geology II
Dr. Amelinda Webb
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anushka Adhikari on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 102-002 at George Mason University taught by Dr. Amelinda Webb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introductory Geology II in Geology at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Introductory to Geology II ( Historical Geology) Important terms: Superposition- Stratiography Fossils Paleontology Plate Tectonic Paleogeography Historical Geology: Rocks, minerals, plate tectonics, fossils, Paleogeography, history of life, Mass extinctions, deep time The planet Earth: Materials, Processes, Surface, Subsurface History: How did it get be the way it is now? Sedimentary rocks: mountains, layers (parallel) Uniformitarianism: The present is the key to the past. Scientific Inquiry: seeking new evidence, different from beliefs  Questions(why, how, what, where, when)  Generate hypothesis and predictions  Collect data : Observation, experiments  Testing the hypothesis  New questions  Presenting/sharing results The scientific Method as an ongoing process: Many studies+ Many scientists work = Develop General Theories = Make Observations (what do I see in nature?) = Think of Interesting questions = Formulate Hypothesis = Develop Testable Predictions( if my hypothesis is correct then….) = Gather Data to Test Predictions = Develop General Theories snoinoltciostabi Important terms:  Fact: objective  Belief: subjective  Hypothesis vs. Prediction  Proof  Theory  Law  Correlation is not causation  Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence : there is no evidence  Fact: observable, measurable, objective  Belief: Personal, no proof required, subjective  Hypothesis : -A possible explanation for a question -Testable -Can be disproven Example : “I think the sky is blue because…”  Prediction: -A statement made in advance(based on hypothesis) -Always an “if-then” statement Important Terms: Law describe patterns Theories describe processes Gravity: Theory of general relativity Important Ideas: Correlation is not causation Proof : Scientific proof doesn’t exist. Course Objectives:  Materials : minerals, rock types, formation of minerals  Processess: Surface, Internal Hydrosphere(liquid) Lithosphere(solid and rigid 100km thick) Atmosphere Biosphere(life on earth)  What do rocks tell us? : - Paleogeography, environment, climate  History of earth:- cChnages through time, life through time, 4.6 billion years of history Important Questions 1) What is Historical Geology? The study of Earth and the organisms present from the beginning of the Earth until the present. The study of rocks, minerals, plate tectonics, fossils, Paleogeography, History of life, mass extension and time. 2) What is scientific inquiry? Seeking out new evidence by way of research and observation to test new or old hypotheses 3) What is the difference between observational and experimental science? Experimental science means physically testing hypotheses to make conclusions before conducting further research. It is based on the treatments applied. Observational science is just based on observing and drawing conclusions from those observations. It is something that we can observe physicsally.


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