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KHP200 Week 1-4 Notes

by: Ally Merrill

KHP200 Week 1-4 Notes KHP 200

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > KHP 200 > KHP200 Week 1 4 Notes
Ally Merrill
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These notes cover everything for Exam 1
History and Philosophy of Physical Education and Sport
Dr. Jill Day
Class Notes
KHP, Sport, philosophy, history, Lecture Notes, day
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Merrill on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KHP 200 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Jill Day in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 02/02/16
Ally  Merrill   KHP200       8/26/16   Introduction  to  Physical  Education,  Fitness,  and  Sport   CHAPTER  1   Introduction   •   A  growing  problem  is  obesity   •   Obesity  statistics   o   2/3  of  adults  are  considered  overweight   o   1/3  of  children  are  overweight   o   30%  of  adults  are  obese   o   16%  of  children  are  obese   •   Body  Mass  Index  (BMI)   o   Weight/(height)^2  x  703   §   *height  is  in  inches   o   normal  is  18.5  to  24.9     §   below  18.5  is  underweight   o   Kids:  birthdate,  date  of  calculation,  sex,  height,  weight   §   Less  than  5  is  underweight,  5  to  85  is  healthy  weight,  85-­‐95  is  overweight   over  95  is  obese   •   Some  children  may  be  influenced  by  their  families  if  they  are  heavier  and  follow  their   habits   •   Depending  on  where  you  live  it  might  not  be  feasible  to  walk  around  most  places   (Regional)   •   Healthy  foods  are  more  expensive  (Economic)   •   Unhealthier  alternatives  are  available  like  fast  food,  driving  everywhere  (Societal)       8/29/16   •   Health  consequences:   o   Since  1980  obesity  in  children  has  tripled   o   Type  II  diabetes  is  directly  related  to  overweight  and  obesity   o   Underlying  causes  of  heart  disease:  smoking,  high  cholesterol,  depression,  low   self-­‐esteem   The  Costs  of  Overweight  and  Obesity   •   Medical  spending   •   Health  insurance   •   Airline  industry   •   Future  impact   Fast  Food  and  the  Obesity  Epidemic   •   Dramatic  increase  in  fast  food  consumption  since  1980   •   Inverse  relationship  between  consumption  of  sugary  drinks  and  milk   •   Typical  fast  food  meals   o   Higher  in  fat   o   Not  fill  you  up   •   Child  Nutrition  and  WIC  Reauthorization  ACT       8/31/16   Highest  obesity  rates   •   Arkansas   •   Mississippi   •   West  Virginia   Prevalence  of  Self-­‐Reported  Obesity   •   No  state  had  a  prevalence  of  obesity  less  than  20%   •   5  states  and  the  District  of  Columbia  had  a  prevalence  of  obesity  between  20%  and   <25%   •   23  states,  Puerto  Rico,  and  Guam  had  a  prevalence  of  obesity  between  25%  and  <30%   •   19  states  had  a  prevalence  of  obesity  between  30%  and  <35%   •   3  states  (Arkansas,  Mississippi  and  West  Virginia)  had  a  prevalence  of  obesity  of  35%  or   greater   National  Goals  for  Healthy  Foods  and  Physical  Activity  in  Schools   •   Healthy  People  initiative   o   Established  health  goals  for  the  nation  for  the  next  decade   •   Two  broad  goals  of  HP  2020   o   Eliminate  health  disparity   o   Lower  obesity  to  increase  life  expectancy   •   Overweight/obesity  goals  for  HP  2020   The  National  Plan  for  Physical  Activity   •   “One  day,  all  Americans  will  be  physically  active  and  they  will  live,  work,  and  play  in   environments  that  facilitate  regular  physical  activity.”   •   Serves  8  societal  sectors   o   Health  care   o   Business  and  industry   o   Mass  media   o   Parks  and  rec  programs   o   Public  health   o   Transportation   o   Volunteer/non-­‐profit  organization   o   education   •   Barriers  to  parents  getting  their  children  involved  in  physical  activity   o   Schedule   Lifespan  Physical  Activity   •   Gender  and  age  limitations   •   The  role  of  self-­‐efficacy   o   Confidence  and  ability  to  do  something   •   The  concept  of  play   The  Early  Years   •   Learning  through  physical  movement   •   From  informal  to  sport  opportunities   •   A  variety  of  venues   •   Kids  begin  sports  programs  at  earlier  ages   o   Can  be  more  prone  to  injury   o   May  become  burnt  out  on  it         9/2/16   Youth:  The  Transition  Years   •   Become  more  sedentary   o   Interests  change   •   Venues  range  from  parks  and  rec  programs,  intramurals,  interscholastic  sports,  private   clubs   Young  Adulthood   •   Campus  recreation  centers   •   Intramurals   •   Sport  clubs   •   Outdoor  adventure  center   •   Health  clubs   •   YMCA’s   •   Parks  &  Rec  programs   Older  Adults   •   Old  myth:  avoid  MVPA   o   Moderate,  vigorous  physical  activity   •   Since  the  1960s,  there’s  been  a  dramatic  increase  in  all  forms  of  competitive  physical   activity   •   Recommended  activities?   •   Regular  physical  activity  increases  life  expectancy   New  Settings  for  Physical  Activity   •   Public  and  private  sector  programs   •   Home  fitness   •   Fee-­‐for-­‐service  sport  clubs   •   Fee-­‐for-­‐service  fitness  centers   •   Community  centers   •   YMCA/YWCA   •   Worksite  fitness/wellness  centers   Emerging  Characteristics  of  Lifespan  Physical  Activity   •   Importance  of  an  early  start….  form  habits   •   Must  be  enjoyable   •   Reduced  gender  bias   •   Increased  life  expectancy   •   Emergence  of  private-­‐sector  industry   •   More  readily  available  and  better  info   •   Improved  technology  available   Major  Issues  we  face  &  how  to  confront  them   •   Access  to  healthier  foods   •   Role  of  race,  place  and  socio-­‐economic  status   •   “build  environment”?   •   is  it  just  individual  responsibility?       9/7/16   CHAPTER  2   Gymnastics  Philosophies  &  Systems:  The  Beginning  of  Physical  Education  in  America   •   Major  European  influences  on  U.S.   o   Germany—Friedrich  Ludwig  Jahn   o   Sweden—Per  Henrik  Ling   •   Jahn’s  goal  was  to  create  a  strong  Germany  by  creating  “Turnvereins”   •   Jahn’s  system  included   o   Jumping,  running,  throwing,  climbing,  vaulting,  and  simple  games  of  running  and   dodging   o   Used  apparatus  similar  to  modern  gymnastics   •   Ling’s  system  had  the  goals  of:   o   Aesthetic   o   Military   o   Pedagogical   o   Medical  aspect  of  exercise   •   Ling  wanted  his  students  to  achieve  a  unifying  relationship  of  mind,  body,  and  duty  to   Sweden   •   Rejected  Jahn’s  work   •   The  American  system:  “Gymnastics”   •   Key  figures:   o   Charles  Beck   §   First  physical  education  teacher  in  US   o   Hartwig  Nissen   o   Catherine  Beechers   o   Dioclesian  Lewis   o   Edward  Hitchcock   o   Dudley  Sargent   Emergence  of  Physical  Activity  in  American  Physical  Education   •   1885—William  G.  Anderson   o   Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Physical  Education   •   Delphine  Hanna  (Oberlin  College)   o   Develops  nation’s  first  Physical  Education  teacher  preparation  program   •   1893—International  Congress  on  Education:   o   Thomas  Wood  (Stanford)   o   Luther  Halsey  Gulick   •   1927—Wood  and  Rosiland  Cassidy  publish  The  New  Physical  Education   The  Emergence  of  Fitness   Role  of  activity/fitness,  a  historical  perspective:   •   Pre-­‐10,000  B.C.—hunting  and  gathering  of  food  for  survival   •   2500-­‐250  B.C.—Eastern  cultures  recognize  its  connection  with  health  problems   •   Greek  &  Roman  Empire—integral  part  of  culture,  military  readiness,  and  worshipping  of   the  gods   •   Male  dominated  society  with  only  men  having  access  to  education   •   Physical  prowess  was  much  sought  after   •   Panhellenic  games  were  a  key  part  of  Greek  life   •   Physical  training  and  sport  also  prepared  military  for  defense  against  outside  intruders   •   Sparta  vs.  Athens   SPARTA  (776  B.C.  to  371  B.C.)   •   Only  the  strongest  babies  survived   •   Sons  were  taught  to  value  their  roles  as  obedient  soldiers   o   Military  training  began  at  the  age  of  7  to  age  50  or  death   o   Running,  jumping,  swimming,  hunting,  wrestling,  boxing,  horseback  riding,  discus   and  javelin   o   Actual  warfare  and  military  experience  began  at  20   o   Little  to  no  mental  training   •   Daughters  learned  their  responsibility  was  to  bear  healthy  children   o   Prescribed  gymnastics  and  swimming   ATHENS  (776  to  480  B.C.)   •   Boys  were  encouraged  to  develop  both  their  physical  and  mental  abilities   •   Physical  prowess  was  part  of  preparation  for  war  and  as  a  way  to  depict  beauty  and   harmony   •   Upper-­‐class  boys  were  given  a  strong  education  from  age  7  to  14-­‐18   •   Taught  music,  arithmetic,  literature   •   Wrestling,  boxing,  jumping,  dancing,  and  swimming   •   Eligible  for  military  service  at  age  20,  but  not  mandated   •   Upper  class  men  did  not  work  but  spent  their  time  at  government  run  gymnasiums   •   Girls  remained  at  home  and  received  little  or  no  formal  education   •   Lived  secluded  lives  even  after  marriage   •   Lower-­‐class  boys  often  received  similar  treatment   •   Only  virgins,  not  married  women,  were  permitted  to  watch  athletic  competitions   Socrates’  and  Plato’s  View  of  Physical  Education  and  the  Body   •   The  training  of  the  mind  was  crucial  because  the  individual  who  developed  intellectual   prowess  could  make  contributions  that  would  be  eternal   •   The  body  would  eventually  decay   •   The  body  will  never  be  equal  to  the  mind/soul   •   Plato,  more  so  than  Socrates,  came  to  believe  the  body  was  important,  but  had  no   patience  for  athletes  who  were  devoted  to  training  of  the  body,  while  neglecting  the   mind   The  Roman  Influence   •   Its  military  training  was  critical  to  conquering  other  civilizations   •   Obedience,  discipline,  &  physical  prowess  were  key  goals  of  military  training   •   Its  sporting  events  mirrored  what  we  see  today:  entertainment,  large  venues,  betting   •   Women  were  less  marginalized  than  in  Greece   •   The  empire’s  demise  also  lessened  the  perceived  importance  of  sport  and  fitness   The  Roman  Republic  (500  B.C.  to  27  B.C.)   •   Boys  were  taught  to  become  citizen-­‐soldiers,  to  be  physically  and  mentally  prepared  for   war   o   Learned  military  skills  such  as  archery,  fencing,  javelin  throwing,  marching,   riding,  running,  swimming,  and  wrestling   o   Conscripted  into  the  military  at  age  17  and  were  available  for  active  duty  until   age  47   •   Daughters  were  educated  to  assume  roles  of  raising  children   o   Expected  to  teach  their  sons  the  importance  of  fighting,  even  dying,  for  the   state   o   More  highly  respected  and  social  active  than  Athenian  women,  though  they  did   not  typically  train  physically   The  Roman  Empire  (27  B.C.  to  A.D.  476)   •   Poorer  citizens  who  were  forced  off  land  spent  days  at  festivals   •   Chariot  Races  at  the  Circus  Maximus   •   Condemned  criminals  and  Christians  were  forced  to  combat  lions,  tigers,  and  panthers   •   Most  Romans  lost  interest  in  developing  bodies  because  were  not  expected  to  serve  as   soldiers         9/9/16   The  Emergence  of  Fitness   •   Dark  and  Middle  Ages  (476-­‐1400  A.D.):  return  to  need  to  sustain  life….  survival   •   Renaissance  (1400-­‐1600):  physical  activity  viewed  as  central  to  intellectual  learning   •   National  Period  in  Europe  (1700-­‐1850):  Emergence  of  Swedish  and  German  “Gymnastics   systems”   The  Dark  and  Middle  Ages   •   The  Dark  Ages  (476-­‐900  A.D.)  was  a  period  of  cultural  and  intellectual  darkness   o   Europe  regressed  into  kingdoms  similar  to  tribal  societies   o   Organized  sport  and  physical  education  was,  for  the  most  part,  nonexistent   o   Physical  activity  was  used  for  survival   •   Middle  Ages  (900-­‐1400  AD)   o   Increase  of  trade  and  commerce   o   Rise  of  Christianity,  though  Christians  disagreed  on  the  view  of  the  body   o   Leisure  physical  activity  was  limited  to  the  upper  class   •   20  century:   o   Roosevelt  as  a  proponent  of  fitness,  physical  activity  and  Physical  Education   o   Great  Depression  slows  progress  of  Physical  Education   o   Many  draftees  were  rejected  in  both  World  Wars   o   1950s—minimum  muscular  fitness  tests  in  children   o   lead  to  the  creation  of  the  President’s  Council  on  Physical  Fitness  and  Sports   o   J.F.K.—“The  Soft  American”  lead  to  national  effort  to  develop  youth  fitness   programs   o   1950s-­‐1960s:  Emergence  of  Kinesiology  as  a  scientific  field  of  study   o   1968:  Kenneth  Cooper  (Aerobics)   o   1970-­‐1980:  focus  of  physical  education  shifts  from  fitness  to  lifestyle  PA   Emergence  of  Organized  Sport  in  America   •   increasingly  industrialized,  urbanized  culture  along  with  emerging  middle  class  helps   sport  become  more  “institutionalized”   •   Post-­‐Civil  War  period:  sport  changed  from  loosely  organized  games  to  standardized   sports   •   How  did  sport  become  “institutionalized”?   o   Standardizing  of  rules   o   Oversight  by  governing  organizations   o   Standards  for  competition   o   Championships  are  formed   o   Records  are  kept   o   Traditions  and  rituals  are  developed   •   Roots  of  the  various  sports?   o   Europe:  Golf,  Tennis,  Cricket   o   U.S.:  Basketball,  Volleyball,  Baseball   Sport  on  the  college  campus   •   1850s:  little  to  no  sport  on  campuses   •   students  drive  the  explosive  growth  initially   •   university  administration  steps  in   •   early  abuses:  eligibility  &  athlete  treatment   •   1882—Harvard:  first  ever  athletic  committee  formed   •   1882:  first  ever  athletic  committee  formed   •   1895:  intercollegiate  conference  of  faculty  representatives  (would  become  Big  Ten   Conference)   •   1917:  Blanche  Trilling  (univ.  of  Wisconsin)  organized  athletic  conference  of  American   college  women   Collegiate  sports  for  women   •   fewer  abuses   •   late  1800s:  archery,  croquet,  and  tennis  were  among  first  sports  to  attract  female   participants   •   societal  attitudes  toward  women  in  the  1800s   •   females  who  sought  schooling,  especially  college  attendance,  encountered  ridicule  and   suspicions  about  their  femininity         9/12/16   Sport  during  the  Depression,  World  War  II,  and  beyond   •   spectator  sport  suffers   •   shift  toward  participatory  youth  sport,  family  sport,  and  informal  kinds  of  participation   •   sport  in  high  schools,  colleges,  and  universities  continues  at  reduced  level   •   professional  sport  also  suffers   Post  WWII:   •   explosive  growth  of  sport  at  all  levels   Prime  influences:   •   Brown  v  Board  of  Education  (1954)   o   Ended  segregation  in  schools   •   Rachel  Carson’s  “The  Silent  Spring”   •   PL  94-­‐142  (1975)   o   Education  for  all  handicapped  children  act   •   Increasing  expansion  of  youth  sport  opportunities   Philosophical  influences  in  American  Physical  Education,  Fitness,  and  Sport     •   European  nationalism/patriotism  (Germany  and  Sweden)   •   Puritanism   •   “Muscular  Christianity”   •   Ralph  Waldo  Emerson  published  “The  Conduct  of  Life”  .  .  .  the  first  wealth  is  health   The  Emergencth  of  Physical  Activity  for  Girls  and  Women   •   19  century  views  of  women:   o   females  should  be  raised  to  occupy  narrow  and  constrained  roles   o   promoted  “feminine  virtues”   o   acceptable  activities  were  less  strenuous   •   Title  IX  (1972)   CHAPTER  3   Introduction   What  constitutes  a  “physical  activity  infrastructure”?   •   Facilities,  spaces,  and  programs  enabling  children,  youths,  and  adults  to  become  and   stay  physically  active   •   Characteristics  of  a  successful  infrastructure   o   Safe,  accessible,  enjoyable/attractive   •   Current  facilities  make  it  easy  to  be  sedentary   State-­‐Level  Efforts  to  support  physical  activity  infrastructures   What  is  needed  to  develop  such  a  supportive  infrastructure?   •   Cooperation  among  organizations  with  similar  goals  to  improve  physical  activity  and   health  among  the  population   •   Federal  Physical  Education  for  Progress  (PEP)  act  (2001)   What  should  policies  aimed  at  supporting  physical  activity  include?   •   Funding     •   Monitoring  system   •   Reporting  system   Local  Efforts  to  Support  Physical  Activity   “Shared-­‐use  agreements”   •   Joint  efforts  between  local  governments  and  school  districts  sharing  resources  (i.e.,   facilities  &  programs)  that  promote  and  sustain  physical  activity   Approaches:   •   Co-­‐location  of  facilities   •   Community  schools   The  Role  of  allied  fields  in  the  physical  activity  infrastructure   Recreation  and  leisure-­‐services  industry   •   Recreational,  sport,  travel,  tourism  programs  provided  by  private-­‐sector  companies,   YMCA,  and  federal  parks  programs   Health  Professions   •   Shifted  from  remedial/medical  approach  to  preventive  or  wellness  approach   •   Services  are  delivered  through  a  variety  of  organizations   Health-­‐enhancement  industry  falls  into  two  categories:   •   Private  sector  for-­‐profit  health-­‐enhancement  industry   •   Public  sector  non-­‐profit  health  organizations   Dance   •   A  significant  human  activity  virtually  everywhere  and  throughout  history   •   Part  of  school  curriculum   •   Form  of  fitness  activity   The  Crucial  Themes  defining  our  present  and  future   Theme  1:   Distributing  opportunity  for  physical  activity  more  equitably   •   Narrowing  the  gap  between  socioeconomic  statuses   •   Goal  of  Healthy  People  2020   Theme  2:   Focusing  on  Younger  and  Older  populations         Older  adults   Traditional  focus  à  children,  youth,  and  young  adults         Early  childhood/pre-­‐school   Theme  3:   Gender  equity  in  physical  education,  fitness,  and  sport   •   Great  progress  since  1972,  but   •   Women  still  suffer  discrimination  in  terms  of  access  to  facilities,  equipment,  and   programs   Theme  4:   Toward  an  Expanded  physical  education   Theme  5:     Toward  an  inclusive  sport  culture       9/14/16   CHAPTER  4   Introduction   Physical  education  influences  over  the  past  100  years:   •   Polio  epidemic   •   Both  World  Wars   •   Mid  1950s   •   Recent  rise  in  child/youth  overweight  &  obesity   o   No  Child  Left  Behind   Defining  a  physical  education  program  by  content  that  we  learn  and  how  it  is  taught   20  century  philosophical  influences  in  physical  education   Most  important  influence  early  20  century:   •   “Education-­‐through-­‐the-­‐physical”  or  the  “new  physical  education”   •   Consistent  with  progressive-­‐education  theory   •   Clark  Hetherington’s  “Fundamental  Education”   o   Organic  education  (physical  activity  beneficial  to  internal  organs)   o   Psychomotor  education  (motor  skills)   o   Character  education  (social  development)   o   Intellectual  education   •   Charles  Bucher   Typical  content  of  a  lesion   •   Fitness,  skill  development,  knowledge  &  social  development   •   Rise  of  the  “multi-­‐activity”  curriculum  (for  full  development  of  the  whole  child)   How  much  time  is  needed  for  real  learning?   •   AAHPERD  1971  PEPI  project   •   Defining  a  “physically  educated  person”   •   NASPE  content  standards   •   Does  not  prescribe  specific  activities   Contemporary  Curriculum  and  Instruction  Models   Skill  Themes  Model   •   Focus  on  learning  to  perform  locomotor,  non-­‐manipulative  and  manipulative  motor   skills   •   Learning  movement  concepts  such  as  location,  directions,  levels,  pathways  and   extensions   •   Ample  opportunity  for  high  levels  of  MVPA   •   Generic  skill  proficiency  levels:   o   Pre  control   o   Control   o   Utilization   o   Proficiency   Health  Optimizing  Physical  Education  (HOPE)   False  assumptions  underlying  fitness  education   •   Primary  goals:   o   Children  and  youths  develop  and  value  a  physically  active  lifestyle   o   Ensure  that  schools  provide  adequate  daily  physical  activity  for  students,   including  MVPA  throughout  school  day   •   Supports  an  ecological  model   Academic  Integration  Model   •   Influenced  by  emergence  of  Kinesiology  in  60s  and  70s   •   Academic  discipline  model  gave  way  to  emphasizing  “integration”   •   Common  in  elementary  and  middle  school   Personal  and  Social  Responsibility   •   Focused  on  treating  students  as  individuals  and  primarily  on  personal  growth  and  social   responsibility  rather  than  solely  on  academic  achievement   •   Well  tested  and  used  successfully  in  variety  of  settings   •   Cooperation,  social  development,  and  responsibility  seen  are  as  important  outcomes  as   skill  and  fitness   •   “Levels  of  responsibility”  as  teaching  tool   Sport  Education   •   Goals:  competent,  literate,  and  enthusiastic  sportspersons   •   Create  authentic  and  complete  sport  experiences   •   Greater  depth  in  learning  content  (“less  is  more”)   •   Preserves  the  central  feature  of  sport   •   Critical  to  success:  fair  and  balanced  competition   •   Increased  student  ownership  &  responsibility   Adventure  Education   •   Adventure  activities,  particularly  those  that  carry  risk  with  them  in  the  natural   environment,  have  the  potential  for  education  and  character  development   •   Often  includes  wilderness  sports  and  outdoor  pursuits   •   Two  sets  of  goals   o   Gain  skills  and  participate  safely   o   Problem  solving,  self-­‐concept,  and  personal  growth         9/16/16   The  Eclectic  Curriculum   •   Most  prevalent  model   •   Goal:  to  expose  to  wide  variety  of  activities   •   Short  unites   •   Generally:  “what  to  teach”  and  “how  to  teach”  is  left  to  the  teacher   •   “if  physical  education  encompasses  everything,  can  it  ever  stand  for  something  specific   and  important?”   Physical  Education  and  Physical  Activity—The  Same  or  Different?   •   Defining  physical  activity   •   To  derive  health  benefits  intensity  must  be  at  least  a  moderate  level  and  some  need  to   be  more  vigorous   •   Two  prime  areas  where  physical  activity  is  obtained   o   School  day   o   Environment   Physical  activity:   National  PA  guidelines  for  children  and  youth:   •   Encourage  young  people  to  participate  in  age-­‐appropriate  physical  activities  that  are   enjoyable,  and  that  offer  variety   What  is  the  evidence  on  the  relationship  between  physical  activity  and  chronic  disease?   Physical  education  defined:   •   A  program  that  equips  all  students  with  the  skills,  knowledge.  And  dispositions  needed   to  make  physical  activity  an  integral  part  of  my  daily  life   •   How  would  you  define  a  “quality  physical  education  program?”   •   NASPE  Standards   Physical  Education  for  Students  with  Disabilities   Key  developments:   •   1920s:  Corrective  Physical  Education   •   Post  WWII:  Rehab  &  Programming  for  war  veterans  >  Adapted  Physical  Education   •   1960s:  Special  Olympics   •   importance  of  physical  activity  for  students  with  disabilities   •   1975  PL  94-­‐142,  Education  of  All  Handicapped  Children  Act   •   Places  students  in  the  least  restrictive  environment  (LRE)   •   Inclusion  represents  an  alternative  philosophy  to  LRE,  with  the  goal  that  all  students   with  disabilities  should  be  in  regular  classrooms   Does  physical  education  have  a  central  meaning?   •   How  are  your  values  reflected  in  your  program?   •   Importance  of  content  and  pedagogy?   •   The  “Teaching  Practices  Hall  of  Shame”    


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