KHP200 Week 1-4 Notes
KHP200 Week 1-4 Notes KHP 200
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Merrill on Tuesday February 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KHP 200 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Jill Day in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 02/02/16
Ally Merrill KHP200 8/26/16 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport CHAPTER 1 Introduction • A growing problem is obesity • Obesity statistics o 2/3 of adults are considered overweight o 1/3 of children are overweight o 30% of adults are obese o 16% of children are obese • Body Mass Index (BMI) o Weight/(height)^2 x 703 § *height is in inches o normal is 18.5 to 24.9 § below 18.5 is underweight o Kids: birthdate, date of calculation, sex, height, weight § Less than 5 is underweight, 5 to 85 is healthy weight, 85-‐95 is overweight over 95 is obese • Some children may be influenced by their families if they are heavier and follow their habits • Depending on where you live it might not be feasible to walk around most places (Regional) • Healthy foods are more expensive (Economic) • Unhealthier alternatives are available like fast food, driving everywhere (Societal) 8/29/16 • Health consequences: o Since 1980 obesity in children has tripled o Type II diabetes is directly related to overweight and obesity o Underlying causes of heart disease: smoking, high cholesterol, depression, low self-‐esteem The Costs of Overweight and Obesity • Medical spending • Health insurance • Airline industry • Future impact Fast Food and the Obesity Epidemic • Dramatic increase in fast food consumption since 1980 • Inverse relationship between consumption of sugary drinks and milk • Typical fast food meals o Higher in fat o Not fill you up • Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization ACT 8/31/16 Highest obesity rates • Arkansas • Mississippi • West Virginia Prevalence of Self-‐Reported Obesity • No state had a prevalence of obesity less than 20% • 5 states and the District of Columbia had a prevalence of obesity between 20% and <25% • 23 states, Puerto Rico, and Guam had a prevalence of obesity between 25% and <30% • 19 states had a prevalence of obesity between 30% and <35% • 3 states (Arkansas, Mississippi and West Virginia) had a prevalence of obesity of 35% or greater National Goals for Healthy Foods and Physical Activity in Schools • Healthy People initiative o Established health goals for the nation for the next decade • Two broad goals of HP 2020 o Eliminate health disparity o Lower obesity to increase life expectancy • Overweight/obesity goals for HP 2020 The National Plan for Physical Activity • “One day, all Americans will be physically active and they will live, work, and play in environments that facilitate regular physical activity.” • Serves 8 societal sectors o Health care o Business and industry o Mass media o Parks and rec programs o Public health o Transportation o Volunteer/non-‐profit organization o education • Barriers to parents getting their children involved in physical activity o Schedule Lifespan Physical Activity • Gender and age limitations • The role of self-‐efficacy o Confidence and ability to do something • The concept of play The Early Years • Learning through physical movement • From informal to sport opportunities • A variety of venues • Kids begin sports programs at earlier ages o Can be more prone to injury o May become burnt out on it 9/2/16 Youth: The Transition Years • Become more sedentary o Interests change • Venues range from parks and rec programs, intramurals, interscholastic sports, private clubs Young Adulthood • Campus recreation centers • Intramurals • Sport clubs • Outdoor adventure center • Health clubs • YMCA’s • Parks & Rec programs Older Adults • Old myth: avoid MVPA o Moderate, vigorous physical activity • Since the 1960s, there’s been a dramatic increase in all forms of competitive physical activity • Recommended activities? • Regular physical activity increases life expectancy New Settings for Physical Activity • Public and private sector programs • Home fitness • Fee-‐for-‐service sport clubs • Fee-‐for-‐service fitness centers • Community centers • YMCA/YWCA • Worksite fitness/wellness centers Emerging Characteristics of Lifespan Physical Activity • Importance of an early start…. form habits • Must be enjoyable • Reduced gender bias • Increased life expectancy • Emergence of private-‐sector industry • More readily available and better info • Improved technology available Major Issues we face & how to confront them • Access to healthier foods • Role of race, place and socio-‐economic status • “build environment”? • is it just individual responsibility? 9/7/16 CHAPTER 2 Gymnastics Philosophies & Systems: The Beginning of Physical Education in America • Major European influences on U.S. o Germany—Friedrich Ludwig Jahn o Sweden—Per Henrik Ling • Jahn’s goal was to create a strong Germany by creating “Turnvereins” • Jahn’s system included o Jumping, running, throwing, climbing, vaulting, and simple games of running and dodging o Used apparatus similar to modern gymnastics • Ling’s system had the goals of: o Aesthetic o Military o Pedagogical o Medical aspect of exercise • Ling wanted his students to achieve a unifying relationship of mind, body, and duty to Sweden • Rejected Jahn’s work • The American system: “Gymnastics” • Key figures: o Charles Beck § First physical education teacher in US o Hartwig Nissen o Catherine Beechers o Dioclesian Lewis o Edward Hitchcock o Dudley Sargent Emergence of Physical Activity in American Physical Education • 1885—William G. Anderson o Association for the Advancement of Physical Education • Delphine Hanna (Oberlin College) o Develops nation’s first Physical Education teacher preparation program • 1893—International Congress on Education: o Thomas Wood (Stanford) o Luther Halsey Gulick • 1927—Wood and Rosiland Cassidy publish The New Physical Education The Emergence of Fitness Role of activity/fitness, a historical perspective: • Pre-‐10,000 B.C.—hunting and gathering of food for survival • 2500-‐250 B.C.—Eastern cultures recognize its connection with health problems • Greek & Roman Empire—integral part of culture, military readiness, and worshipping of the gods • Male dominated society with only men having access to education • Physical prowess was much sought after • Panhellenic games were a key part of Greek life • Physical training and sport also prepared military for defense against outside intruders • Sparta vs. Athens SPARTA (776 B.C. to 371 B.C.) • Only the strongest babies survived • Sons were taught to value their roles as obedient soldiers o Military training began at the age of 7 to age 50 or death o Running, jumping, swimming, hunting, wrestling, boxing, horseback riding, discus and javelin o Actual warfare and military experience began at 20 o Little to no mental training • Daughters learned their responsibility was to bear healthy children o Prescribed gymnastics and swimming ATHENS (776 to 480 B.C.) • Boys were encouraged to develop both their physical and mental abilities • Physical prowess was part of preparation for war and as a way to depict beauty and harmony • Upper-‐class boys were given a strong education from age 7 to 14-‐18 • Taught music, arithmetic, literature • Wrestling, boxing, jumping, dancing, and swimming • Eligible for military service at age 20, but not mandated • Upper class men did not work but spent their time at government run gymnasiums • Girls remained at home and received little or no formal education • Lived secluded lives even after marriage • Lower-‐class boys often received similar treatment • Only virgins, not married women, were permitted to watch athletic competitions Socrates’ and Plato’s View of Physical Education and the Body • The training of the mind was crucial because the individual who developed intellectual prowess could make contributions that would be eternal • The body would eventually decay • The body will never be equal to the mind/soul • Plato, more so than Socrates, came to believe the body was important, but had no patience for athletes who were devoted to training of the body, while neglecting the mind The Roman Influence • Its military training was critical to conquering other civilizations • Obedience, discipline, & physical prowess were key goals of military training • Its sporting events mirrored what we see today: entertainment, large venues, betting • Women were less marginalized than in Greece • The empire’s demise also lessened the perceived importance of sport and fitness The Roman Republic (500 B.C. to 27 B.C.) • Boys were taught to become citizen-‐soldiers, to be physically and mentally prepared for war o Learned military skills such as archery, fencing, javelin throwing, marching, riding, running, swimming, and wrestling o Conscripted into the military at age 17 and were available for active duty until age 47 • Daughters were educated to assume roles of raising children o Expected to teach their sons the importance of fighting, even dying, for the state o More highly respected and social active than Athenian women, though they did not typically train physically The Roman Empire (27 B.C. to A.D. 476) • Poorer citizens who were forced off land spent days at festivals • Chariot Races at the Circus Maximus • Condemned criminals and Christians were forced to combat lions, tigers, and panthers • Most Romans lost interest in developing bodies because were not expected to serve as soldiers 9/9/16 The Emergence of Fitness • Dark and Middle Ages (476-‐1400 A.D.): return to need to sustain life…. survival • Renaissance (1400-‐1600): physical activity viewed as central to intellectual learning • National Period in Europe (1700-‐1850): Emergence of Swedish and German “Gymnastics systems” The Dark and Middle Ages • The Dark Ages (476-‐900 A.D.) was a period of cultural and intellectual darkness o Europe regressed into kingdoms similar to tribal societies o Organized sport and physical education was, for the most part, nonexistent o Physical activity was used for survival • Middle Ages (900-‐1400 AD) o Increase of trade and commerce o Rise of Christianity, though Christians disagreed on the view of the body o Leisure physical activity was limited to the upper class • 20 century: o Roosevelt as a proponent of fitness, physical activity and Physical Education o Great Depression slows progress of Physical Education o Many draftees were rejected in both World Wars o 1950s—minimum muscular fitness tests in children o lead to the creation of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports o J.F.K.—“The Soft American” lead to national effort to develop youth fitness programs o 1950s-‐1960s: Emergence of Kinesiology as a scientific field of study o 1968: Kenneth Cooper (Aerobics) o 1970-‐1980: focus of physical education shifts from fitness to lifestyle PA Emergence of Organized Sport in America • increasingly industrialized, urbanized culture along with emerging middle class helps sport become more “institutionalized” • Post-‐Civil War period: sport changed from loosely organized games to standardized sports • How did sport become “institutionalized”? o Standardizing of rules o Oversight by governing organizations o Standards for competition o Championships are formed o Records are kept o Traditions and rituals are developed • Roots of the various sports? o Europe: Golf, Tennis, Cricket o U.S.: Basketball, Volleyball, Baseball Sport on the college campus • 1850s: little to no sport on campuses • students drive the explosive growth initially • university administration steps in • early abuses: eligibility & athlete treatment • 1882—Harvard: first ever athletic committee formed • 1882: first ever athletic committee formed • 1895: intercollegiate conference of faculty representatives (would become Big Ten Conference) • 1917: Blanche Trilling (univ. of Wisconsin) organized athletic conference of American college women Collegiate sports for women • fewer abuses • late 1800s: archery, croquet, and tennis were among first sports to attract female participants • societal attitudes toward women in the 1800s • females who sought schooling, especially college attendance, encountered ridicule and suspicions about their femininity 9/12/16 Sport during the Depression, World War II, and beyond • spectator sport suffers • shift toward participatory youth sport, family sport, and informal kinds of participation • sport in high schools, colleges, and universities continues at reduced level • professional sport also suffers Post WWII: • explosive growth of sport at all levels Prime influences: • Brown v Board of Education (1954) o Ended segregation in schools • Rachel Carson’s “The Silent Spring” • PL 94-‐142 (1975) o Education for all handicapped children act • Increasing expansion of youth sport opportunities Philosophical influences in American Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport • European nationalism/patriotism (Germany and Sweden) • Puritanism • “Muscular Christianity” • Ralph Waldo Emerson published “The Conduct of Life” . . . the first wealth is health The Emergencth of Physical Activity for Girls and Women • 19 century views of women: o females should be raised to occupy narrow and constrained roles o promoted “feminine virtues” o acceptable activities were less strenuous • Title IX (1972) CHAPTER 3 Introduction What constitutes a “physical activity infrastructure”? • Facilities, spaces, and programs enabling children, youths, and adults to become and stay physically active • Characteristics of a successful infrastructure o Safe, accessible, enjoyable/attractive • Current facilities make it easy to be sedentary State-‐Level Efforts to support physical activity infrastructures What is needed to develop such a supportive infrastructure? • Cooperation among organizations with similar goals to improve physical activity and health among the population • Federal Physical Education for Progress (PEP) act (2001) What should policies aimed at supporting physical activity include? • Funding • Monitoring system • Reporting system Local Efforts to Support Physical Activity “Shared-‐use agreements” • Joint efforts between local governments and school districts sharing resources (i.e., facilities & programs) that promote and sustain physical activity Approaches: • Co-‐location of facilities • Community schools The Role of allied fields in the physical activity infrastructure Recreation and leisure-‐services industry • Recreational, sport, travel, tourism programs provided by private-‐sector companies, YMCA, and federal parks programs Health Professions • Shifted from remedial/medical approach to preventive or wellness approach • Services are delivered through a variety of organizations Health-‐enhancement industry falls into two categories: • Private sector for-‐profit health-‐enhancement industry • Public sector non-‐profit health organizations Dance • A significant human activity virtually everywhere and throughout history • Part of school curriculum • Form of fitness activity The Crucial Themes defining our present and future Theme 1: Distributing opportunity for physical activity more equitably • Narrowing the gap between socioeconomic statuses • Goal of Healthy People 2020 Theme 2: Focusing on Younger and Older populations Older adults Traditional focus à children, youth, and young adults Early childhood/pre-‐school Theme 3: Gender equity in physical education, fitness, and sport • Great progress since 1972, but • Women still suffer discrimination in terms of access to facilities, equipment, and programs Theme 4: Toward an Expanded physical education Theme 5: Toward an inclusive sport culture 9/14/16 CHAPTER 4 Introduction Physical education influences over the past 100 years: • Polio epidemic • Both World Wars • Mid 1950s • Recent rise in child/youth overweight & obesity o No Child Left Behind Defining a physical education program by content that we learn and how it is taught 20 century philosophical influences in physical education Most important influence early 20 century: • “Education-‐through-‐the-‐physical” or the “new physical education” • Consistent with progressive-‐education theory • Clark Hetherington’s “Fundamental Education” o Organic education (physical activity beneficial to internal organs) o Psychomotor education (motor skills) o Character education (social development) o Intellectual education • Charles Bucher Typical content of a lesion • Fitness, skill development, knowledge & social development • Rise of the “multi-‐activity” curriculum (for full development of the whole child) How much time is needed for real learning? • AAHPERD 1971 PEPI project • Defining a “physically educated person” • NASPE content standards • Does not prescribe specific activities Contemporary Curriculum and Instruction Models Skill Themes Model • Focus on learning to perform locomotor, non-‐manipulative and manipulative motor skills • Learning movement concepts such as location, directions, levels, pathways and extensions • Ample opportunity for high levels of MVPA • Generic skill proficiency levels: o Pre control o Control o Utilization o Proficiency Health Optimizing Physical Education (HOPE) False assumptions underlying fitness education • Primary goals: o Children and youths develop and value a physically active lifestyle o Ensure that schools provide adequate daily physical activity for students, including MVPA throughout school day • Supports an ecological model Academic Integration Model • Influenced by emergence of Kinesiology in 60s and 70s • Academic discipline model gave way to emphasizing “integration” • Common in elementary and middle school Personal and Social Responsibility • Focused on treating students as individuals and primarily on personal growth and social responsibility rather than solely on academic achievement • Well tested and used successfully in variety of settings • Cooperation, social development, and responsibility seen are as important outcomes as skill and fitness • “Levels of responsibility” as teaching tool Sport Education • Goals: competent, literate, and enthusiastic sportspersons • Create authentic and complete sport experiences • Greater depth in learning content (“less is more”) • Preserves the central feature of sport • Critical to success: fair and balanced competition • Increased student ownership & responsibility Adventure Education • Adventure activities, particularly those that carry risk with them in the natural environment, have the potential for education and character development • Often includes wilderness sports and outdoor pursuits • Two sets of goals o Gain skills and participate safely o Problem solving, self-‐concept, and personal growth 9/16/16 The Eclectic Curriculum • Most prevalent model • Goal: to expose to wide variety of activities • Short unites • Generally: “what to teach” and “how to teach” is left to the teacher • “if physical education encompasses everything, can it ever stand for something specific and important?” Physical Education and Physical Activity—The Same or Different? • Defining physical activity • To derive health benefits intensity must be at least a moderate level and some need to be more vigorous • Two prime areas where physical activity is obtained o School day o Environment Physical activity: National PA guidelines for children and youth: • Encourage young people to participate in age-‐appropriate physical activities that are enjoyable, and that offer variety What is the evidence on the relationship between physical activity and chronic disease? Physical education defined: • A program that equips all students with the skills, knowledge. And dispositions needed to make physical activity an integral part of my daily life • How would you define a “quality physical education program?” • NASPE Standards Physical Education for Students with Disabilities Key developments: • 1920s: Corrective Physical Education • Post WWII: Rehab & Programming for war veterans > Adapted Physical Education • 1960s: Special Olympics • importance of physical activity for students with disabilities • 1975 PL 94-‐142, Education of All Handicapped Children Act • Places students in the least restrictive environment (LRE) • Inclusion represents an alternative philosophy to LRE, with the goal that all students with disabilities should be in regular classrooms Does physical education have a central meaning? • How are your values reflected in your program? • Importance of content and pedagogy? • The “Teaching Practices Hall of Shame”
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